Street Directory of Commercial Road, south side, 1899

Underlining denotes people and/or trades at the same premises in 1921, to which most of the links giving more detail refer.

2   James Harrington, beer retailer
4   Jeremiah Sullivan, fruiterer [1]
6   George Francom, hosier
8   Matthew Nicholas, coffee rooms
10 Midland Railway Receiving House [2]
12-16 Capital & Labour Association is Plough Street...
18 William Straker, stationer [3]
20 Solomon Levenberg, grocer
22 East London Dispensary [4]
24 G.M. Lion & Co., wholesale clothiers [5]
30 Samuel Law, coffee rooms
30A Abraham Moses, tailor
30A Reliance Deposit & Loan Co Ltd, I Kaliski, Secretary [6]
30B Woolf Harris & Son, Birmingham & Sheffield warehouse [7]
32 James Jabez & Seymour William Chalk, timber merchants
     (Riga Yard)

Seymour William Chalk
36 Harvey, Lerwill & Willis, hay salesmen
36 William Davey, corn merchant
38-40 London Salvage Corps, James Ford, superintendent
42 Thomas Watson, veterinary surgeon
44 Castle, John Frederick Wahlers is Goodman's Stile...
46 London & India Docks Joint Committee Wool & Bonded
Warehouse / London, Tilbury & Southend Railway Goods Station
     D Edward Munns, superintendent
46-50 Gun Makers' Company's Proof House, John Spencer, barrel
     proof master / Gun Makers' Hall, Frederick T. Ashton, clerk is Gower's walk...
52 Cohen, Weenen & Co tobacco manufacturers
     Improved Industrial Dwellings (Morrison buildings)
     George Plumby carpenter (Morrison buildings) is Back Church Lane...
62 Boundary tavern, Frederick James Fryer
64 Story, Holliday & Co, scale makers [8]
66 Samuel Harris, fruiterer
68 William James Murray, carman
70 Israel Marienstraus, cheesemonger
72 Barnett Schwartz, tailor
74 Ernest Mœller & Co, wholesale stationery dealers
76-78 Joseph Michael Sullivan, wholesale tobacconist [9]
80 M Altmann, incandescent gas fittings manufacturer [10]
82 Morris Davies, provision dealer is Berner Street...
84-6 William J Harris & Son, tobacco manufacturers [11]
88 Albert Wagener, beer retailer
90 Carl Wolgang, hairdresser
92 Francis George Cheesman, harness maker [12]
94 Samuel Schmidt, hairdresser
96 John Harman, oilman
98 W J Fraser & Co, engineers [13] is Batty Street...
100 Edward Bell & Co, chemists [14]
100 Frederick William Blackwell, surgeon
102 [& 169] John Henry Tirrell, butcher
104 Benjamin Duck, beer retailer
106 Isaac Kahan, money changer
108 Aaron Levy, hat maker
110 Max Spigel, tobacconist
112 Aaron Posenheim, tinplate worker [15]
114 William Williams, corn dealer is Christian Street...
116 Mrs Louisa Fisher, pawnbroker
118 Israel Israel, clothier
120 Henry Whiting, shirt & collar dresser
122 John Walker Bland, wholesale stationer
124 Charles Sitzler, hair cutter
126 Charles Campbell Birkett, dining rooms
128 King's Head, Herbert Thomas Stow is Grove Street...
130 Israel Barnett, leather seller
132 Solomon Levy, tailor
134 [& 160] Harris Cohen & Sons, haberdashers [16] is St George's Terrace...
136 Jacob Kutchinsky, baker [17]
138 Mrs Mary Ann Tucker, umbrella maker is Umberston Street...
140 Samuel Russell Larcombe, beer retailer
142 Isaac Lewis, provision dealers

144 William Brumpton, coffee rooms [18]
146 Mrs Betsy Iserliss, midwife
146 Israel Volin, confectioner
148 Lewis Bloomenfeld, watchmaker [19]
150 Isaac Woolf, hairdresser
152 Moses John Hickman, undertaker [20] is Morgan Street...
154 Harris Bass, fruiterer
156 Isaac Abraham, tailor
156-8 Mackworth Arms, Otto Meyer
160 [& 134] Harris Cohen & Sons, haberdashers is Cannon Street Road...
162 Louis Frumkin, wine & spirit dealer
164 Marcus Joseph, bookseller
164 Marks Rubenstein, purse maker
164 Edmond Beal Bacon, bootmaker
166 Hermann Schlesinger, mantle manufacturer
168 Simon Cohen, confectioner
170 Bernhard Morris, surgeon
172 Krayer Greenberg, draper
174 Nathan Amdur, butcher [21] is Little Turner Street...
176 Edward Emptage, cycle agent [22]
178 John Arnold Woolman, butcher
180-2 John Furlong, clothier
184 Mrs Hettie Goldstein, milliner
186 Isaac Perkoff, photographer [23]
188 Gustave Michael MB CM, surgeon]
190 Thomas Brock, confectioner
192 Joseph Himpfen, baker [24]
194 Society for Organising Charitable Relief,
      Thomas Mackay, honorary secretary
194 Augustus George Crowder is Richard Street...
196 Hyman Krimstein & Son, tobacconists
196 Jacob Dvorsky, butcher
198 Mrs Sarah Amis, fruiterer
200 Mrs Elizabeth Knight, draper
202 Samuel Marks, newsagent
204 Joseph Reiter, wholesale provision merchant
206-8 William Smellie, tripe dresser [25] is Jane Street...
210 Jacob Bosman, fried fish shop
212 Samuel Davies, watchmaker
214 Isaac Caplan, fruiterer
216 Thomas Oates, grindery dealer
218 William Harries, cowkeeper
220 Max Brenner, hairdresser
222 Moses Goodman, confectioner
224 [& 365] Rafel Wolskey, butcher is Anthony Street...
226 Tee-To-Tum Tea Stores [26]
226 Buchanan's Young Men's Institute,
      Joseph Nicholson, honorary secretary [27]
226 Buchanan's Social Club & Benefit Society,
      John Anderson, secretary [27] is Upper Fenton Street...
228 James Isaacs, window glass cutter
228A Philip Boxer & Co, chandlers shop
230A Jacob Czershorski, butcher [28]
230 Lord Nelson, Mills Brothers is Buross Street...
232 Isaac Michaels, tobacconist
234 Samuel Lisst, hairdresser
236 William Gates, coffee rooms
238 Grosman & Pinsky, furniture dealers
240 William Augustus Ayton, beer retailer is Hungerford Street...
       Commercial Road Chapel  [& see 322]
242 Benjamin Pizer, rag merchant
242 John Middleton, carman
242A Nathan Levy, tailor
246 Mrs Caroline Matten, beer retailer is Planet Street...
248 Lewis Madenberg, tobacconist
248 Barnett Silverstone, shoemaker
250 Marks Fletcher, cap maker
252 John Wood & Co, corn dealers
254 Mrs Martha Ellen Carrington, coffee rooms is Winterton Street...
      German Wesleyan Church
262 Barbican Mission to the Jews
      (Prediger) Christlieb Tragott Lipshytz, secretary [29]
264 Levene Margolinski, furniture dealer [30]
266 William Francis Trawley, beer retailer is Watney Street...
270 William Wilson, travelling draper
272 Chandler Bros, carmen
282 George Merritt, relieving officer
284 Henry Harris, apartments
292 J B Dodsworth, rate collector [31]
294 Frederick James Dodsworth, house agent [31]
296 Jacob Goldstein, tailor
298 Louis Crocker, boot manufacturer is Dean Street...
300 Sargent & Sargent, surgeons [32]
302 Frederick William Dix, wholesale stationer
304 Nathan Schor, jeweller
306 Bert Walker, artificial teeth maker
312 Harris Cohen
314 William Edward Grandy MB, surgeon [32]
316 Lewis Symonds, commission agent
318 James Hood & Sons, auctioneers &c
320 William Moss
322 Rev Joseph Fletcher
324 Abraham Alexander, tailor
328 Convent of the Little Company of Mary, nursing sisters,
      Rev Mother Ethelreda, superior
330 Abraham Benabo, appraiser [33]
332 Charles Mitchell, cigar manufacturer
334 Moss & Gray, house agents
334 Augustus William Tanner, district surveyor [34] is Sutton Street East...
336-8 James Walker & Sons, bakers
340-2 Frost Bros Ltd, rope makers
      St Mary & St Michael's (Catholic) Church
342 Mrs Mary Amelia Mason, dressmaker
344 [& 369] William Riddle, cheesemonger
346 Frederick Franklin, portmanteau maker is Lucas Street...
348 Wiiliam George Dickenson, beer retailer
350 George Jones, musical instrument maker
352 Frederick Hutchinson, coffee rooms
354 [& 27 & 543] Edmund Richard Goodrich, oilman
356 Joseph Hadida, watchmaker [35]
358 Josph Dodd, bicycle maker
360 Henry Roome, newsagent
362 [& 321] Morgan Evans, dairy
366 Nelson Heard Hocking, butcher is Johnson Street...
368 London & South Western Bank Ltd,
      Ernest Noel Oxley [36]
370 Alex Grant MA MD, surgeon [32]
372 John Lynch, surgeon is Harding Street...
378 William Henry Godier, fishmonger [37]
380 John Jeffery, beer retailer
382 Lewis Levy, confectioner
384-94 Church Training Coll for Lay Workers,
      Rev Ernest Robert Ford MA, warden
396 East End Mothers' Home, Miss Sarah E Bloomfield,
      lady superintendent
398 James Smith & Son, drapers
400 Rev George Thomas Cull-Bennett (St John's Vicarage)
402 George Morton, travelling draper
404 Arthur & Rogers, surgeons
406 [& 418] George Henry Derby, china dealer
408 Peter Dennison, cowkeeper
410 Robert Mitchell, corndealer
412 Charles Cooper Amis, waste paper dealer [38]
414 Edwin Light, beer retailer is Devenport Street...
416 Eliazar Woolf, tailor
418 [& 406] George Henry Derby, oilman [39]
420 Samuel John Gray, printer is Havering Street...
422 William Gillies, linendraper
424 Robert Capon Hayward, insurance superintendent [40]
426 Simon Garber, cigar manufacturer
432 Charles Hutchins
434 Maurice Wolff, shell merchant is Albert Square...

[1] At the Old Bailey in 1882 Jeremiah Sullivan, aged 28, was acquitted of robbery with violence on the Commerical Road. Although some witnesses from near the crime scene (inclouding the waterman from the Mackworth Arms) identified him, an hour or so before he had been at the Thames Police court with his wife, who had summoned him for assault, and another policeman saw him heading in the opposite direction.

[2] Railway companies established receiving houses where goods carried by rail could be delivered or collected. In many towns these were located in former coaching inns.

[3]  William Straker's stationery business was established in 1863, and by the turn of the century had several branches around London - right is their largest in 1910. The firm continues as W Straker Office Solutions, based in Brighton.

[4] The City of London & East London Dispensary was founded in 1849 for the benefit either of the sick poor of the City of London and the Metropolitan Boroughs of Shoreditch and Finsbury generally or of such sick poor persons resident therein; its local base was later at 19 Leman Street.

[5] George Mayer Lion and Moss Lion were in partnership as 'merchant and wholesale clothiers' until 1892; George Mayer continued the business in Commercial Road as G M Lion & Co (living at Fordwych Road, Cricklewood) but was bankrupt in 1900. Moss had married Plymouth-born Lavinia, who had a child from a former marriage; they lived at 123 Minories; he was liquidator of Surprise Stores Ltd, 6-8 Pentonville Road, in 1898.

[6] The Reliance Deposit & Loan Company, of which Isaac Kaliski, later known as Isaac Kaye, was the Secretary, was voluntarily wound up in 1920 (by which time it was based at 16 New Road), with chairman Abraham Moses and Kaliski as liquidators. Kaliski was a tailor by trade, and was involved with several local synagogues, serving as Secretary both of Old Castle Street and Princelet Street synagogues, and of the Chevra Tehillim u'mishmorim (Society for Chanting the Psalms and Visiting the Sick) at the latter - the first of a number of similar societies. He also became Secretary of Philpot Street Great Synagogue, established in 1908 in the former Wycliffe Independent Chapel and refurbished in 1923. The previous year he appears to have arranged for a flash photo to be posed and taken at the Yom Kippur service [right], which caused disapproval, and Kaliski, giving the synagogue as his address, was convicted in 1923 of what the magistrate described as one of the worst cases of fraud he had seen - was this linked with the Reliance Company? Kaye died in 1933 at Finchley Road, Golders Green (having previously lived at Mapesbury Road, Brondesbury). The Isaac Kalisky Kaye charity for the Jewish Poor, income to be distributed among the deserving poor of Southend and Westcliffe, was closed in 2001.

[7] Woolf Harris [Halevi] was born in London in 1826 and married Phoebe in 1848; they had five sons and two daughters. He was a hardware dealer, and died in 1905, by which time the firm was advertising as dealing in Birmingham and Sheffield goods - that is, iron, brass and silver ware with decorative finishes from the former, and cutlery and steel products from the latter. His second son Sir David Harris (1852-1942 - left), the Grand Old Man of South African Jewry, went out to the diamond fields in South Africa in 1871, and married in Kimberly two years later; after moderate success as a prospector, he became a diamond buyer and acquired claims of his own; he was an associate of Cecil John Rhodes, and a director (later chairman) of De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd until his retirement in 1931. He was the longest-serving member of the Cape Legislative Assembly, and an active volunteer soldier, rising to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, taking part in the suppression of the Bechuanaland rebellion of 1896-7 and the Boer War in 1899-1902, and was awarded the KCMG in the 1911 Coronation honours. See his 1931 memoirs Pioneer, Soldier and Politician.  (A younger brother John also went out to South Africa and died there a few years later.)

[8] Story, Holliday & Co, later Holliday & Co [right] were scale makers; see here for Herbert & Sons, another scalemaking firm on St George's Street.

[9] Joseph Michael Sullivan was in partnership with Walter Clark until 1885 as wholesale and retail tobacconists, and then on his own account - see here for later tobacco dealers on Commercial Road.

[10] Morris Altmann traded as the Wholesale Incandescent Fittings Company, and sailed close to the wind in terms of patent law. In 1906 the Webb Lamp Co, who had a patent for improved means for preventing water spray in connection with cocks and pumps sued WIFC and John Dewhurst & Sons for making and selling twenty splash-preventing nozzles of similar design. The case came before Buckley J in the King's Bench, but in the course of the opening evidence the parties conferred and settled; a perpetual injunction was issued, and terms agreed for a licence to the defendants, later embodied in a consent order. In the same year, the Anti-Vibration Incandescent Lighting Company Ltd sued them for making and selling to W.D. Sharp of the Fleck Arms in Leicester anti-vibrators for incandescent gas lighting in breach of their patent. Altmann, who defended himself in person before the Lord Chief Justice, Lord Alverstone, claimed that he only sold the parts, not the combination, but did not not convince; compensation was ordered for the infringement.

[11] William J Harris & Son's premises are pictured left in the 1880s; right is a view from a few yards along the street. See here for other tobacco dealers.

[12] The Cheesman family were from Hawkhurst in Kent, and several generations were harness makers there: Jesse was apprenticed to the trade in 1813. Francis George Cheesman was working in Hawkhurst in 1880 before his move to London.

[13] The Fraser company began in Houndsditch before 1830, moving in 1836 to Commercial Road. William John Fraser, of no.10, was granted patents in 1866 for improvements to steam boilers, also applicable to hot water and other boilers, and in 1868 for improvements to furnaces or fireplaces. His partnership with George Coleman Fraser and John Hazel Fraser as Fraser Bros, engineers, and tank and boiler makers, at 98 Commercial Road and Railway Iron Works, Bromley-by-Bow, was dissolved in 1880; he continued at Commercial Road and his brothers at the other site. Left are trade illustrations for Morris's patent boilers (1888), Lyon's Apparatus for Purifying Feed-Water (1894) and a compound water-tube boiler (1895). Right are their premises on Goad's 1899 insurance map: the office on the corner of Commercial Road and Batty Street, with the works behind. In the Pharmaceutical Journal for 1900 they advertised for sale One nearly new Copper Vacuum Pan, 5 ft. diameter, fitted with Stirring Gear, Condenser and all fittings. One Mild Steel Steam Jacketted Still, 4 ft. diameter, fitted inside with Copper Steam Coils, Stirrer and Pulleys, Galvanised Iron Still Head. A major product was a hydrogen lamp for use in mines, which as well as providing illumination gave a more accurate indication of methane levels in the air. Frasers made mechanical improvements to the cylinder, made under a patent from Redwood & Clowes, with a lamp patented by Ashworth - more details here and here. A private company from 1904, it moved to Dagenham in 1910. In 1947 it had a plant in Monk Bretton, near Barnsley; by the 1960s, with a staff of 250, they were specialising in the design and construction of petroleum, chemical and refinery plants (including BP's refinery at Llandarcy), with their head office at Harold Hill near Romford.
As the map shows, Coopers' Hall was adjacent (and accessed from Berner Street); its origins are unclear, but it was used for a time by the German Wesleyans before they built their own chapel at 262 Commercial Road. In 1879 the Workmen's National Executive for the Abolition of Foreign Sugar Bounties met here (for an address by Mr W.P.B. Shepheard), and in 1903 the hall was mentioned in evidence to the Royal Commission on Alien Immigration, which reported in 1903, as an alleged Socialist haunt which had been closed for eight years.

[14] In 1885 a chemist from Edward Bell & Co gave evidence at the murder trial of Israel Lipski about the purchase of acid. (Was this the same Edward Bell, a ship-chandler, sailmaker and dealer in varnish of Wapping Wall who had been declared bankrupt in 1860?)

[15] Aron [sic] Posenheim, German-born, previously lived at no.75 (where a daughter was born in 1875). He was naturalized in 1912, when he and British-born Moses and Julia, all living at no.112, changed their surname by deed poll to Porter. A tinplate worker in 1899, in 1921 he was a plumber.

[16] Frederick L and Marcus Cohen traded as Harris, Cohen & Sons, and were involved in the export trade: in 1916 they sued the Bunguet Commercial Company of Manila for breach of contract, unsuccessfully because they were not registered in the Philippines. Julius Cohen of 58 Cable Street was also a haberdasher.

[17] Around 1890 Jacob Kutchinsky and Yetta Yankovsky were married by Jewish rites in Russia; they came to London where he worked as a baker and provision dealer in Commercial Road and later Poplar High Street. In 1900 when his business failed and bankruptcy proceedings began they and their four children moved to Sutton Street, and then to Leman Street. He then abandoned his family and went to South Africa where he contracted a second marriage in 1904. He and his bigamous wife moved to Missouri in the United States where he was naturalized in 1912, taking the name John Jacob Kichin. The previous year he had offered Yetta £50 to sign a paper declaring that they had never been married. In 1921 the federal court cancelled his naturalization, after a full argument of the case, on the basis that he had not been a moral and law-abiding citizen for five years before his naturalization, as required by statute, but was guilty of such fraud in concealing his bigamous marriage as to constitute grounds for its cancellation.

(Jacob was probably no relation of the more famous Joseph (Joe) Kutchinsky (1914-2000), whose Polish ancestors had been jewellers to the court of Ludwig of Bavaria. His grandfather fled to England in the 1890s and established a shop in Cannon Street Road, and then at 171 Commercial Road. Joe was the youngest of Moshe-Aron (born in Grobova in 1874) and Hannah's four children, and an experienced diamond polisher by 14;  having taken charge of the business, being an astute salesman as well as a skilled jewller, he read the signs of the times and moved it to Brompton Road, Knightsbridge in the 1950s -
this 1957 Pathé video clip shows him at work - with extravagent creations appealing to the jet set, especially in the middle East (where in due course the family fortunes were lost at the time of the Gulf War: the firm was sold to Moussaieff Jewellers Ltd.) After the death of Joe and his wife Lily their personal collection was sold in 2001.)

[18] William Brumpton was born in Holborn in 1818. He married Ann Monument from Hoxton, and they had seven children (one died as a young man; one daughter was in an asylum). William's brother James Boulter Brumpton, an invalided cabinet maker, also lived with them until his death in 1899. William died in 1914 at High Road, Leytonstone, described as a restaurant keeper.

[19] Lewis Bloomenfeld was born in Russia/Poland  around 1867, and married Yetta; in 1911 he was living in Holborn.

[20] Moses John Hickman was churchwarden of St George-in-the-East in 1875 - more about him and his family and business here.

[21] Samuel Nathan Amdur (1863-1943), right, married Sarah Zuker - both born on the Russian-German borders - and they came to London, where they raised six children. They lived at 25 Kinder Street until 1894, then at 174 Commercial Road; by 1901 they were living in Mile End Old Town. At some point his Lithuanian-born parents Eliahu Dov and Menucha Amdur also came to London; they died in Queen Street, Whitechapel in 1913 and 1914. Amdur was a kosher butcher, and died in 1943 at Morgan Houses, Hessel Street.

[22] Edward Emptage's partnership with Frank Moody as 'Chelmsford Motor & Engineering Co', motor and cycle engineers, at Bridge Works, Springfield Road, Chelmsford, was dissolved in 1907.

[23] In 1887 Isaac Perkoff (1870-1948) came to London with his father Michael from Kiev in the Ukraine; they set up a photographic business, which Isaac then took over from his father, opening a studio in Commercial Road and later one near the family home The Vines on Lea Bridge Road, Clapton, employing several staff. He won various prizes, including an Award of Merit in London in 1895, a Silver Medal from the Polytechnic Technical School, Regent Street, in 1896 for finishing enlargements, black and white, and a Silver Medal at the 1896 Paris Exhibition. Isaac abandoned his father's observant practices and became a left-wing Zionist, much-involved with Yiddish arts, writing plays and poems and translating the works of Sholem Aleichem (on whose stories Fiddler on the Roof is based). He and his wife Anna raised eight children, and many of his pictures are of his extended family, as well as of ordinary immigrant families (who saved up for the all-important studio portrait) and of political and artistic figures, including the First Central Committee of the Workers' Circle (see here for local links), of Sholem Aleichem and the actor-manager Maurice Moscovitch. Left is a self-portrait from his studio, and a mid-1930s picture of Perkoff aged 65 with a friend Mr Fine at Westcliff-on-Sea. See here for other photographers working in the area.

[24] Joseph Himpfen (1851-1933) and his brother Peter (1856-1923) were bakers who came from Bruttig, near Coblenz, in the 1870s. Peter originally lived and worked at Osnaburgh Street near Regent's Park, but came to 11 Nassau Place (i.e 192 Commerical Road) as a result of 1879 bankruptcy proceedings.

[25] When Soumeliers (winegrowers from St Emilie, possibly Huguenots) came from France to Scotland their name took its present form. In the 18th century William Smellie was a pioneer obstetrician - the first to teach midwifery in a scientific manner - and another William Smellie was the first editor of Encyclopaedia Britannica. The one who settled in Shadwell (and had connections with St Paul's Church) was a baker, but later a gentleman of some propertry, which on his death in 1823 he left to his wife and children. His grandson William (1821-99) appeared in most census and other documents as a tripe dresser, but in some as butcher, and the family had butcher shops in Ben Johnson Road, Stepney and Shadwell High Street, with a tripe factory round the corner in Dellow Street [right on Goad's 1887 insurance map]. His address is given as Nassau Place (which became 206 Commercial Road) in an 1867 mortgage, when he was one of the trustees of the First Middlesex Benefit Building Society, but he also had a connection at no.23. However, he moved on - first to Wick Place, Bow and then to Ivy Cottage, 90 Romford Road in Stratford: a large old house in a big garden with a statue and fountain. By 1871 he had 32 employees; ten years later he had retired. When he died he left £1600, and his three sons carried on the business - one of whom (the one listed above) was also William. On the site of Ivy Cottage is now Topaz House, part of which is Highway Church.

[26] The temperance movement set up tea shops to counteract the influence of public houses, and some were named Tee-to-tums, echoing the eipthet 'teetotal'. The following explains the legend of Tee-to-tum and the tea tree; a very free translation (which incorporates rhymes for 'Twinings'!) can be read here. It's not known whether this store (and another branch at 172 White Horse Street, Stepney) were temperance institutions, or merely a reflection of popular chinoiserie.
BY 'T. T. T.'

'The Tea-Tree' of Tee-to-tum is the most celebrated of all Chinese didactic poems, and is one of those great and elaborate works to the production of which the labour of a life is necessary. The story of Hyson and Bohea ... may be considered as perhaps the most pathetic of its episodes.Tee-to-tum did not misemploy his genius, and his toil was not ill-rewarded; for 'The Tea-Tree' may be considered the great national poem of the Chinese. The history of Tee-to-tum is somewhat remarkable. It is related that he was cradled in a tea-chest, and that tea not only formed his earliest diet, but that through life he took no other nourishment. He lived in a retired tea-garden in the district of Sing-te; his house and his furniture were formed of tea wood, and the dry branches of tea-trees served him as fuel. He lived to a green old age, and his death was occasioned by an accident similar to that which terminated the days of Anacreon; only that the Chinese poet was choked, not by a grape-stone, but by a tea-stem. His poem is very voluminous, being divided into two hundred books, or, as he calls them, branches. Each branch comprises full a thousand 'leaves'; not indeed leaves of two pages each; but the single verses of Tee-to-Tum are called 'tea-leaves' by the people of the Celestial Land. His industry was remarkable: not a day passed without his adding to or correcting his poem.

[27] Harold Buchanan, who ran the University Club attached to Oxford House in Bethnal Green, set up the Federation of Working Men's Social Cluibs, which by 1894 had 60 branches and 6,000 members across London, of which Buchanan's Young Men's Institute, Social Club and Benefit Society [left on Goad's 1899 insurance map, together the premises above] was one. Writing in 1889, Charles Booth listed all the known clubs in the area, dividing them into 'politicial', 'social', 'philanthropic and religious' and 'proprietary' - see his comments here.

[28] The Czershorski family were butchers in and around Kutno, in Russia/Poland. Three brothers came to London with their wives and worked as butchers: Jacob (listed as a master butcher) and Solomon both in Commercial Road, and Isaac nearby in Grove Street. Jacob's wife was Yetta, and their children Deborah, Solly, David, Isaac and Lilly. Tvi, the son of another brother, Mordechai, and his half-brother Moshe (Morris) also came to London and worked with their uncles. Their surnames are variously spelt Cherkoski, Czarkioski, Czershovski and Czershorski.

[29] The Barbican Mission to the Jews began work in that area in 1879, taking its title in 1891. It was staffed by Jewish Christian converts, and held missionary meetings (at which hymns were set to well-known Hebrew or Yiddish melodies), ran a children's home, and offered medical assistance, which desperate Jewish families took up despite their suspicion of its conversionist approach. From 1889 the director was the Rev, or Prediger [preacher] Haim Christlieb Traugott Lipshytz [left], a learned man who was a member of the Royal Astronomical Society. Here is an account by a Jewish convert who worked at the mission's reading room in Whitechapel. The society expanded into work in Eastern Europe, particularly Poland, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia; see here for the rescue work of the Revd and Mrs I.E. Davidson of a hundred children from Prague during World War II. In 1976 the mission merged with the International Society for Evangelisation of the Jews as Christian Witness to Israel.

[30] Levene Margolinski was born in Russia in 1848 and naturalized in 1896.

[31] What relation to Dodsworths the printers on The Highway?

[32] medics:
Cornish-born Drs
Hugh Cann Sargent and George Edward Henry Sargent (what relation were they?) practised together at 223 Shadwell High Street and 300 Commercial Road until 1900 when the ended their partnership, Hugh continuing at the former and George at the latter surgery. Hugh was MRCS and a Fellow of the Hunterian Society from 1896. In 1901 he was called out to attend to Marie Curry, who in extreme depression had thrown her fifth child into the river at Old Gravel Lane bridge and jumped in after him; she was deemed insane, and detained at His Majesty's pleasure. George's qualification was LMSSA - a licentiate of Apothecaries Hall Dublin, described as a qualification of last resort for those who had failed elsewhere; at one time it was allegedly acquired on presentation of two cases of Chateau Lafitte! He died at Southend in 1914, aged 56.
Dr William Edward Grandy was from Dublin, baptized at St Andrew's RC church in 1859 and graduating MA and MD from the University of Dublin; he was LRCS and in 1897 took a Diploma in Public Health (jointly awarded by the Royal College of Surgeons and the Royal College of Physicians). His practice was at no.314. Before the start of World War I he had moved to Pevensey Road, St Leonard's-on-Sea, and from 1916-20 was a temporary Lieutenant and Medical Officer with the 4th Battalion of the Sussex Volunteer Regiment. He was honorary secretary of the East Sussex Medico-Chirugical Society.
Dr Alexander Grant at no.370 was a Scot - MA of Aberdeen and MD of Edinburgh; he was a Fellow of the Hunterian Society from 1875 (and Councillor in 1882) and died in 1904 aged 66, having practised in the Commercial Road for many years.
See here for doctors practising on Commercial Road in 1921.

[33] Masahod (Massaud) Benabo's family had settled in East London and were associated with Bevis Marks Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue. Abraham Benabo was born in Spitalfields in 1837; when he married Amelia Paris (a parasol maker from Mile End Old Town) in 1858 he was living at Montefiore Buildings, Jewry Street and was described as a fancy turner; but later he was variously termed general dealer, auctioneer and house agent, with addresses at New Road Whitechapel, Houndsditch and Cannon Street Road;  he went through a bankruptcy in 1865, and later worked from 284 and 330 Commercial Road. They had eleven children; he died in 1913 (when he was also described as a communal worker), and Amelia in 1915.

Augustus William Tanner was born in 1843 at Tendring in Essex, attended Palace School Enfield and was articled to John Giles, qualifying as an architect (ARIBA) in 1870. Perhaps as part of his training, he made a verbatim transcript of Sir Charles Barry's specification of works for his 1836 interior decoration of the Reform Club in Pall Mall. He practised in Hull (where he was architect and surveyor to the School Board), and married Lavinia Botto at Yeovil in 1872; they had six children. He was then George Edmund Street's office manager until 1881, when he went into partnership with 'society' architect William Henry Romaine-Walker until 1896 (they designed the gardens to Rhinefield House together). In 1894 he sued George Forrest & Son in the High Court. By this time the family had moved from New Cross Road to South Kensington (Selwood Place, later Pelham Place). In 1883 he became District Surveyor for Hatcham, and for Rotherhithe and St George-in-the-East from 1896. He was in 'personal attendance' at Rotherhithe from 9.30-10.30am each morning, and at St George-in-the-East from 1.30pm. He spent some time in Rome in 1898. He died in 1923, at Erpingham Road, Putney.

[35] Joseph Hadida (1849-1913) was one of nine children of Jacob Hadida and Esther da Silva; they and their relatives were members of Bevis Marks (the Spanish & Portuguese) Synagogue. (Another Joseph Hadida also had a father Jacob, but his mother was Sarah; they lived in Mansell Street, and later at Scarborough Street.) A jeweller and watchmaker, Joseph was married from 356 Commercial Road to Rachel Hyman from Finsbury.

[36] Ernest Noel Oxley was later a cashier at the Mercantile Bank of London, King Street, Cheapside. See here for details of the takeover of the London & South Western Bank by Barclays.

[37] Several generations of Godiers were fishmongers, originally living around Shoreditch. James Godier, trading at 242 Commercial Road as a fruit salesman & fishmonger, went through bankruptcy in 1867, but in 1893 was made a freeman of the City of London. In 1909 the papers reported
A remarkable lawsuit over £11,000 left by James Godier, a Billingsgate fishmonger, was settled on Saturday by an arrangement between the parties concerned. Godier married Bella Taylor, his housekeeper, two days before her first husband's funeral and thereafter revoked a will in which he made various bequests to members of his family. The exors claimed that he was not in his right mind when the mariage was contracted. This was the third time Godier had been married, and Emily Godier, a daughter by his first wife, told the court that the children of one marriage lived on one floor and those of the second on another. Counsel stated that the matter had been considered by both sides, and on the terms arranged the will would be pronounced for so that its terms could be carried out. It was distinctly understood, added counsel, that the marriage was not to be considered invalid. Both sides agreed on that.

Right is a trading token of Godier and Britton, fish sellers of 10 Lower Thames Street in the City, where they traded from 1892-1910. (The other one, on the right, is from Mills & Crome at no.7.) They were found at the water's edge in 2012.
William Henry Godier traded as a fishmonger at no.378; in World War I he served as a Lance Corporal in the Sussex Regiment. The premises later became a fish and chip shop.

[38] In 1915 Charles Cooper Amis had become the landlord of the Windsor Castle, Enid Street, Neckinger, Bermondsey.

[39] George Henry Derby traded from 418 Commercial Road and 35 Parker's Row Bermondsey as an oil and colourman, and china and glass dealer  and went through bankruptcy in 1904. In 1891 he had given evidence at the trial of the porter at the East End Mothers' Home, for whom he cashed one of the misappropriated cheques.

[40] Robert Capon Hayward moved with his wife Harriet and four children to Hull in 1912; she died three years later. The elder son Robert was gassed in World War I and invalided home; the younger son Ron moved back to London, and the two daughters left home to get away from a strict father; he remarried and had two more sons. One of the daughters, Enid, emigrated to Canada and lived to be 109.

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