Curates of St Paul Dock Street

Nineteenth century

Some were Oxbridge graduates (as had been all the Floating Church and Sailors' Asylum clergy), but a good number were from Trinity College Dublin (TCD) - despite Bishop Blomfield's prejudice against them - see the note here on ordination training. And like the Vicar Dan Greatorex some came from St Bees in Cumbria; and others from King's College London (KCL). Many served overseas, before or after their time here.

Alexander Eccles Auchinleck (1855): son of a clergyman and JP with two homes in County Fermanagh (Castle Lodge and Mullans) - with other clerical relatives in the area - though the family's roots were at Auchinleck in Ayrshire, Scotland, with a barony from the early 16th century acquired from James IV: James Boswell, the diarist associated with Samuel Johnson, was the 9th Laird. The Gaelic Ach-ea-leac means 'the field of the flat stone', as the area abounds in flat sheliving rock. The family arms are described as argent, a cross counter embattled sable. Alexander studied at TCD (and was awarded a 'catechetical premium' in 1841); ordained in Lincoln diocese, he served curacies there, in Southampton and at Walwith (= Walworth, Northumberland?) before his brief time here; he then became curate of Playden, near Rye (returning to St Peter Dublin in 1862 to marry Fanny Crozier), and then of Dronfield in Derbyshire, at that time in Lichfield diocese (returning to St Stephen Dublin in 1871 to marry Sydney Spear, his second wife). Here he took a keen interest in the legal arrangements for the emerging American Episcopal Church. In 1879 he became Vicar of Car Colston in Nottinghamshire, where he remained until his death in 1904.

Daniel Ace (late 1850s) - and formerly (we believe) an Independent minister in Wales; although he was only here for a short time, he deserves his own page because of his extraordinarily wide range of interests: as well as theological subjects, he wrote on issues as varied as 'self-education', railway statistics, prison reform, the military training of boys, foot and mouth disease, the abolition of tithes, the reform of marriage law and blasphemy. Like Charles Besley Gribble he was a keen astronomer, and elected as a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society, as well as of other national societies.

Edward James Talbot Laughlin (1858): another TCD man, born 1830, who after graduating in 1851 joined the 2nd West India Regiment as an Ensign, becoming a Lieutenant in 1854. Raised in 1795 as Myers Regiment of Foot, this was one of twelve (later reduced to six) units recruiting free-born blacks and (until abolition) slaves in the West Indies; though always fully part of the British Army, they were not a popular choice for officers - which is perhaps why his commission was 'without purchase'. (Here is a later picture of what may possibly have resembled its uniform.) He saw action in the West Indies and the west coast of Africa, and then (with the 41st Royal Welch Regiment) in the Crimea (did his paths cross with those of George Mockler who had been a curate at Christ Church Watney Street, or Alfred Cay, later at St George's?) He was then ordained, taking an ad eundem or courtesy MA degree from Oxford in 1857 (a practice that continued with Oxford, Cambridge and Dublin, and some colonial universities, after it had ceased elsewhere) and served here briefly; he married in 1860. He was curate of West Bilney in Norfolk from 1862, and from 1866 until his death in 1886 of Willingham, in Ely diocese, living in the Rectory; he died intestate, and was buried in the churchyard there. His daughter Susannah became a Roman Catholic, and one of her children became a nun.

Robert Henry Vickers (1860), also graduated from TCD, in 1855, and was ordained that year by the Bishop of London to serve as a CMS missionary in India, setting sail with his wife from East India Docks; he was based in Travancore, from where he sent letters on the Indian Mutiny and other papers. He returned in 1859. In 1869 (when he was living in Kilburn) he produced a verse translation of La Nobla Leyczon, a late 12th century text in Old Occitan which is the foundation document of the early Protestant Waldensian movement. He died in 1871, and his widow returned to Madras; his son Wildred Constant Vickers was a Surgeon-Major in the Indian Medical Service.

William Brown Keer (1861-65): son of a devout Methodist farmer in Suffolk (of whom he wrote a memoir in the 1868 Wesleyan-Methodist Magazine), he trained at St Bees. As a curate in Liverpool he was attacked and beaten by a Catholic mob in June 1858 and was protected the following week by Protestant bodyguards (compare the riots at St George-in-the-East the following year!) He came here after a further curacy in Bradford. At Christ Church, Watney Street he preached a sermon Baptism, Regeneration & Discipleship in response to Spurgeon's attacks on Anglican baptismal teachings, and also Numbering our days; or, thoughts for the old and new year (both published by William Macintosh 1864). He was then approved for missionary service by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel - as was a successor-curate Francis Jephcott in the same year - and for 7 years took up new work as chaplain in Bombay, living on a warship in the harbour (shades of the Episcopal Floating Chapel that preceded St Paul's): see these notes of a mission tour in Ceylon and South India, and in Kattywar and Cutch, and also various published talks there, including Navigation Ancient & Modern (1866), Paris, Past and Present, a lecture at Bombay Town Hall for the Mechanics' Institution (Education Society's Press 1867) and Books and Reading as a Recreation (Bombay Gazette Steam Press 1871).

He then became seamen's chaplain in Singapore (see
this sermon preached at St Andrew's Cathedral, Singapore on 25 June 1871). After a period as acting chaplain in Valparaiso, Chile, he returned to England and became curate-in-charge of Heywood in Wiltshire, where he published his annual Whit Tuesday sermons for the Hawkeridge Benefit Club on themes such as 'Ways of Pleasantness', on Proverbs 3.17 (1881), and 'The Tillage of the Poor', and an 1886 Accession anniversary sermon preached at Fittleton On Prayer for the Queen. Among his other publications was one on his 1873 travels in the Persian Gulf and the Euphrates; A trip to the Vienna Exhibition and back (1873); an 1874 paper on the Greek Easter in Jerusalem; and one on The Sign of the Cross: its use in the baptismal service of the Church of England explained (1882). In Down South in 'The Long' (1877) he commended South America as an ideal long vacation project for Oxford students (he spoke there in Union debates, including supporting the temperance cause in 1873, and in 1897 gave a small collection of artefacts to the Pitt Rivers Museum). The Canberra Times of 27 July 1927 reported his death:
A Career of Adventure
Recently passed away a remarkable man in the person of the Rev. William Brown Keer, who had the courage to ride alone across Asia from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean in order to visit the ruins of Nineveh and Babylon. He did some hard work at Liverpool and In the East End of London before he went to India for seven years' work as harbour chaplain at Bombay, and as chaplain at Chili [sic], for which place he started from Oxford at a few hours' notice. In 1892 he sailed in a native ship to the Persian Gulf, bought a horse, and started on a perilous ride to Nineveh and Babylon. When he encountered robbers, who must have known that he had a considerable amount of money about him, he repeated very impressively the texts from the Koran as to hospitality to strangers and was never molested. He was a frequent contributor to magazines, and his death is said to be due to his never eating anything after his tea at 6 o'clock, and going out three years ago to an early service on All Saints Day without food, when he was seized with a stroke of paralysis from which he only partially recovered.

Canon William Henry Fairfax Robson (1861-62) - born in 1834, after a private education he was ordained to this parish from King's College London - here is his farewell sermon at St Paul's. He then went as curate, then vicar, of St Giles Northampton, and was also chaplain of the county gaol in the town; he became an honorary canon of Peterborough in 1875. Here, between 1866-69, he published 27 of his sermons and some pamphlets, including Heads of Christian Doctrine, a critique of Swedenborgian ('New Church') teaching, which he may first have encountered at St Paul's through followers of Swedenborg connected to the Swedish church in Prince's Square) - see here for their response; he also compiled a collection of 'additional hymns' for the parish in 1865. He married Temperance Ellen Britten, who died in 1885 soon after the birth of their sixth child. In 1877 he moved to Chester diocese as Vicar of Christ Church Claughton (Oxton, in Birkenhead). In his time there, this was war poet Wilfred Owen's family church - he attended Sunday School and sang in the choir, and it is said found Robson's preaching inspiring: in 2012 the actor Dean Johnson and current organist Paul Broadhurst put together a dramatic event there Christchurch Remembered, with some of Owen's poetry and organ music from the time. [See here for St Paul's School's links with another war poet]. In 1881 Robson was made an honorary chaplain to the Liverpool Brigade of the Royal Naval Artillery Volunteers; he became rural dean in 1907 (giving evidence in 1909 to the Royal Commission on the Poor Laws), until his death in 1913. In his time many changes were made to the church, new church organisations set up, and an orphanage, a daughter church and a church school were built. He had six sons and four daughters.

George Tripp (1862-68) was born in 1837 and grew up at Altarnun in Cornwall (the 'cathedral of the moors'), where in 1842 his father Robert Henry Tripp (1801-80), vicar there for many years, built the parsonage house (now Penhallow Manor - right) which is said to be the inspiration for the sinister albino Francis Davey's rectory in Daphne du Maurier's Jamaica Inn - and is also said to be haunted by the ghosts of Mary the housekeeper and the vicar with whom she had an affair. He trained at KCL and served his title here (staying longer than most, and living in Taymouth Terrace, Philpot Street), going on to curacies at Lambeth, Bethnal Green, Cheshunt, St Peter Regent Square and Chelsea. By 1881 was a curate in Sutton, Lancs, lodging in New Street with the Rosbotham family (daughter Hannah, a schoolteacher, was the first female recipient of the Albert Medal for her part in rescuing children from the school after violent storm damage), and in 1886 was living in Thornton, near Leicester (and a member of the Anti-Vivisection Society). He died in 1896, of chill and pneumonia, in Market Bosworth workhouse (having been a curate in the parish), said to have given away £20,000 over the years to any who asked him for help, including foreign missions.

Moses Clarke (1868-70), graduated from TCD (third class) in 1863 and served his title at St Andrew Lambeth (then in Winchester diocese), before further brief spells at St John Horsleydown and St John Southwark (leaving with a testimonial). After his time here he became curate at St Silas Pentonville. This parish had been carved out St James Pentonville; the foundation stone was laid in 1860, but because of problems with S.S. Teulon's design, and faulty building materials, it was not opened until 1863, as Christ Church, changing its name at its consecration in 1867. Through its association with All Saints Mission Chapel in White Lion Street (founded by All Saints Margaret Street) a few years later it became an extreme anglo-papalist parish. But Clarke moved within a short time to the curacy of St Bartholomew, Gray's Inn Road, and in 1872 to be senior curate at Christ Church Somer's Town, Chalton Road - built in 1868 to replace St Luke's Euston Road, demolished for the building of St Pancras Station, and one of many carved out of St Pancras parish, with which its parish was reunited in 1954, having been bombed in 1940. There he was active in the (very protestant) Church Association.

Enoch Reddall (1869-70) had a complex life, which it's hard to piece together, with a sad ending. Born in Birmingham in 1816 (baptized at St Philip's, but not until he was 8 or 9 - why?), he married Mary in 1842 at St Margaret Westminster (so had one of them 'society' connections?) and ordained the same year as a 'literate' [non-graduate], he spent his time seeking to provide for their eight sons and two daughters, in a variety of curacies, schoolmaster posts and workhouse chaplaincies. His title was at Morley, near Leeds (in Ripon diocese) but the next year they moved to Northamptonshire (Peterborough diocese) - possibly after a failed curacy at Bunbury in Cheshire - where he became curate at Marston St Lawrence & Warkworth (near Brackley). He preached a sermon at Banbury in 1843 in aid of the national schools, at which the impressice sum of £11 7s. 10d. was collected. From here in 1844 he published Latin Synonyms and Phrases for the use of Grammar Schools &c - very good as far as it goes said The Literary Gazette.  

Six of their children were born in or around Middleton Cheney (a Brasenose College living which coincidentally had provided previous Rectors of St George-in-the-East). In 1849 he was appointed Master of the Free Grammar School at Aynho (5 miles from Middleton Cheney, and also with Brasenose patronage). In 1850 he graduated from Magdalen Hall, Oxford (as a mature, non-collegiate student). In 1851 he also became chaplain to the Brackley Union [workhouse]; in that year the school had only two boarding pupils, but there were seven free scholars and fourteen others. The family then moved to Oxfordshire, where he became Head Master of Woodstock Free Grammar School in 1855 (where full boarding fees were 25 guineas a year - the best masters will be secured) and Chaplain of the Woodtock Union in 1857. The family came to London soon after - their youngest child was born in Shoreditch in 1860 - and his brief time in this parish followed later that decade. He later assisted in Essex parishes, including Stapleford Tawney with Theydon Mount, near Epping (where the Rector certified that all the professional duties in the church and parish have been satisfactorily and well performed), and Elmstead, near Colchester. However, according to The Sun and Central Press of 26 February 1873:

The Rev. Enoch Reddall was charged before the Essex magistrates at Thorpe on Monday with assaulting a policeman. Having been fined some days ago for drunkenness [for which he was fined 5s.], Mr. Reddall is alleged to have walked four miles in search of Eldred, and knocked him down with a heavily-knobbed stick. The bench expressed their intention to committ Mr. Reddall to the assizes, upon which he said he should plead 'not guilty, as he was insane'.

The Scholastic Register of 29 March 1873 reported the outcome: he had been ordered to be confined during Her Majesty's pleasure as a lunatic; he had been charged with committing a very violent offence upon a police constable. He died in confinement in Birmingham in 1884. We are grateful for contact with his great-great-grandson Christopher who has more details about his life.

C Burn (signs in registers as 'Curate in Charge' 1872)

Henry Thomas Heffell (1874-82, but with previous links at the church - see below: his daughter was married here in 1873), was born in Dover in 1827, and married there in 1849; prior to his extended curacy at St Paul's, when he lived at 159 Cable Street and was well known in the Dock Street area, he had been employed by the Spanish Evangelical Society during the period of the Great Exhibition. The Revival for August 1862 (p36) reported
Most important operations have been commenced among the Spaniards and Portuguese visiting the great International Exhibition in London. An earnest and efficient English missionary, who can speak the Spanish and Portuguese languages with the utmost fluency, has been engaged by the committee, and has been at work in this way since the beginning of June. William Long. Esq., of London, under whose superintendence he was placed, accompanied him on his first visit to the Exhibition, and writes:—I have just returned from the Exhibition with Mr. Heffell, and I think there is every prospect of an opening among the Spaniards and Portuguese. He addressed four or five Spaniards and Portuguese at the Portuguese Court, and I was surprised at the readiness with which they listened to him, and accepted some Spanish books. I deeply regret being obliged to give up this interesting work, but shall watch it from time to time. In consequence of Mr. Long's absence from London, Mr. Heffell labours at present under the direction and superintendence of Wilbraham Taylor, Esq., who meets with him and the foreign agents for natives of other countries, every morning for prayer and conference, previous to their entering upon the work of the day.

The Christian
(Morgan & Scott 1870) includes this testimonial:

St Paul's Church for Seamen, Day-schools, Wellclose-sq, Jan 26th
Having held six classes for instructing Spaniards in this place, we are witnesses to the fact that, by the help of the Rev. R. Hunt's phonetic Spanish Key, Spaniards, who previously know not the alphabet, have quickly had power to read more or loss fluently, and also to teach other illiterates to do the same with like facility.
Dan Greatorex, Vicar.     Enoch Reddall, Curate.    H. T. Heffell, Spanish Missionary.

From 1882 until his death in 1899 (at Hastings) he was Chaplain to the Dreadnought Hospital Greenwich - which in 1870 had come ashore from former hospital ships moored in the Thames. (He was briefly succeeded in this role by Brooke Lambert, formerly of St Mark Whitechapel, who was Vicar of Greenwich until his death the following year.)

John Gilbert Surman (1883-85) combined clerical and military pursuits and was something of an inventor. In 1878 (living at Amersham Road, New Cross) he was granted a patent for an improved boat for sub-aqueous warfare. It is described in more detail in Paul Bowers The Garrett Enigma and the Early Submarine Pioneers (1999):
The vessel was about 30' long with a beam of 7'. The interior of the hull was divided into three: the centre section was for the machinery; the forward compartment was for the helmsman; and in the stern was an air reservoir. Above the submarine, mounted on a rubber tube was a float connecting the vessel to the surface so that air could be drawn into the boat by a compressing pump, manned by five men, and stored in the air chamber in the stern. A valve closed automatically when the air tube went below the water. The engine was powered by compressed air taken from the reservoir and it drove two 'fin propellors' ...

Surman trained at King's College London and served his title here, living in Burr Street (East Smithfield, by St Katharine's Docks), and then did further study at TCD while curate at St Stephen Southwark. From 1887 to his death in 1917, aged 58, of heart failure several months after an operation [headstone right], he was Rector of Healing, near Grimsby, with a population of 324 (to which he was presented by a relative). However, in 1897 he enlisted as a second lieutenant in the 9th (Militia) Battalion of the 60th King's Royal Rifle Corps (formerly the North Cork Rifles, headquartered at Mallow in that county, from 1881-1908 it was part of the KRRC), and in 1898, in proceedings instituted by the archdeacon, he was fined a third of his stipend by Lincoln Consistory Court because of his absence from parochial duties for 126 days in 1897, and 108 days the following year, giving musketry instruction to volunteers. In 1899 he patented a non-refillable bottle [right]. The following year he faced a libel action brought by Emily Raynor of Grimsby (what was the outcome?); the same year he married Bessie Stacpoole (whose family had lived in Mexico) at St Matthew Bayswater. He - or she - must have had considerable means, as in 1914 he sued his stockbrokers in the High Court for negligence in relation to a 'bear' or 'oversold' account ('when the speculative sales exceed the speculative purchases') which they had set up on his behalf with £10,000 Consols stock. In 1904 a curate was licensed to take temporary charge of the parish, perhaps because of some further exploit. A final project was a 16-page Treatise on Ecclesiastical Dilapidations (the amounts then payable by incumbents towards work on their parsonages), published by Jackson & Son in 1915.

Samuel Evans (1885), an Irishman and former Army lieutenant (his cousin was Sir George White VC, garrison commander at the siege of Ladysmith), trained at TCD and was ordained in 1862 as curate of Irvinestown, Derryvullen in the diocese of Armagh. Two London curacies - Lambeth, and All Hallows Bromley-by-Bow - followed before his time here. He then purchased the advowson (the right of presentation) to the Rectory of Taxal [Whaley Bridge, then in Cheshire but now in High Peak, Derbyshire], following the death of his elderly predecessor, and in 1887 presented himself to the living - the curious circumstances of its sale, and subsequent developments in the parish, are set out here. He was frequently at loggerheads with his wardens and congregation, as this incident in 1890 shows:
The Church militant, in a literal sense, has a doughty champion in the rector of Taxal, the Rev. Samuel Evans, M.A., who had a dispute with one of his parishioners, Col. Edward Hall, [Lt-Col Hall was a local JP, non-resident but elected as the people's warden] and, being unable to prevail by force of reasoning, struck him with a violent blow on the cheek with his fist. All this to-do was about the annual vestry meeting. The blow was struck in the church itself, and it frightened away the congregation; the rector, the clerk, and the organist being left to go through the service. At Stockport, four days later, the rev. gentleman expressed regret for his hasty and ill-sonsidered action, whereupon he was bound over [in the sum of £10] to keep the peace for six months. It is an odd thing that vestry meetings are more fruitful of contentious matter and angry denunciations than any other sort of gatherings whatsoever.
There  were other incidents - a consistory court over graves, disputes over the closure of the church for repairs, and allegations over malpractice over pew rents. But he clearly had his fans, as this obituary from a local paper suggests (he died in 1922, single and intestate, leaving £17,122):
End of Remarkable and Eccentric Career
By the death on Saturday of the Rev. Samuel Evans, rector of Taxal, Whaley Bridge, a well-known figure and eccentric character has been removed. An Irishman, he was formerly a lieutenant in the Army, but left the Service for the Church, and was appointed rector of Taxal in 1887. Known locally as the 'fighting parson', he was a law unto himself in the parish, He invariably carried a stick of the shillelegh type with him on his walks, in which he was accompanied by a big dog, and he dressed in well-worn - even shabby - clothes. Sometime he wore odd boots.

On one occasion, at a vestry meeting, he told one of the churchwardens that he would wring his neck. On another, in the middle of Sunday morning service, he descended the poulpit stairs, walked to the pew of one of the churchwardens, and struck him. The warden subsequently had the rector bound over by the magistrates.
Later on he quarrelled with the bell-ringers and the Taxal bells were silent for about a year. During the war he appealed for the exemption of his grave digger as indispensable, but when the school managers, of whom he was chairman, appealed for the schoolmaster he opposed the appeal.

He was, with all his eccentrictiy, a kind-hearted, generous, man, and did a great deal of good by stealth. But he allowed the rectory grounds to run to weed, and the rectory woodwork was never painted during his incumbency. He lived alone, and had his meals supplied from a public house near the rectory. He died after three days illness.

Basil Silver Aldwell (1887-90), from Corpus Christi College Cambridge, was the son of Basil Duckett Aldwell (of an Irish family), the noted evangelical founder of St Luke Greetham Street, Southsea (Portsmouth) in the 1860s; after serving his first curacy here, and a second in Lambeth, he returned to St Luke's as his father's curate, then vicar, for nearly 30 years. The Gospel Magazine of November 1895 (p690) includes this portrait:
We this month give the portrait of another of the younger ministers of Christ who, in these times of general departure from the truth of God, prefer the 'old paths', and delight in 'the good way'.
The Rev. B. S. ALDWELL is the son of the Rev. B. D. ALDWELL, the beloved Vicar of St. Luke's, Southsea, who, after serving faithfully the cause of God's pure truth through a long life, lately fell asleep in Jesus. The subject of our sketch was educated at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, graduating B.A. in 1884, and proceeding to the M.A. degree four years later. He was ordained in St. Paul's Cathedral in 1887, his first curacy being in a poor East-End parish – St. Paul's Whitechapel, of which the Rev. D. GREATOREX was Vicar. His work in that sphere lay largely amongst the young, during the three years that he held the curacy. In 1890, Mr. ALDWELL, with regret, left the East-End, to take the senior curacy of St. Thomas', Lambeth, under that true servant of Christ, the late Rev. J. K STAREY, whose guidance and counsel – the fruit of thirty years' experience in the parish – were of great value to Mr. ALDWELL. For eighteen months he laboured most happily in Lambeth. The failure of his dear father's health, however, led to his going to Southsea in October, 1891, and since that date till now he has continued at St. Luke's, first as Curate, and subsequently as Vicar. On the death of his beloved father, the late BISHOP THOROLD appointed Mr. ALDWELL to the Incumbency, an act that did credit to the Bishop's judgment, for in our dear friend the parish of St. Luke possesses a pastor whose previous practical training in poor and populous districts, added to considerable pulpit gifts, and earnest piety, fit him well to occupy the position long and successfully occupied by his father.
The Gospel which the late faithful Vicar preached for thirty years was that of the free and sovereign grace of God, together with clear, uncompromising Protestant instruction. Although grace is not hereditary, and the best examples are not always followed, there is no break in the continuity of the teaching at St. Luke's. Good congregations attend the services, especially on Lord's-day evenings; many of the most earnest workers in the parish being Dockyard men, and retired Naval Warrant Officers. Great unanimity exists in the congregation and parish, and a truly spiritual work is reported to be going on amongst the people and the children. The Church Pastoral Aid Society, the Church Missionary Society, and the Trinitarian Bible Society, as well as some other Evangelical and decidedly Protestant agencies are heartily supported. The Day and Sunday Schools, which are very large, are admirably managed, and the reports of Her Majesty's Inspeator regarding the former are always highly complimentary.
The district is one of the poorest in Portsmouth, with a population of nine thousand. Two Curates have hitherto been employed, as well as a Bible Woman, though much need of a good Scripture Reader is felt, but where to obtain the means to support one is the difficulty.
A great deal of philanthropic work is carried on. Large relief is distributed in the winter months, and a capital soup kitchen is maintained; but, as Mr. ALDWELL lately said, "Our main object
is the spiritual welfare of the people." We commend our dear brother and his great work to the prayers of our readers, for those clergy who contend for the faith, and 'stand fast' in these perilous times, deserve every sympathy and support.

From 1920-29 he was vicar of Bitterne near Southampton, then of Mancetter, then from 1934 of Flordon in Norfolk (joined with Hapton in 1937). His wife Mary Bertha co-founded with Miss Hoare the Lambeth Girls Evening Home, known as Queen Victoria Girls Club. She died in 1942, and he in 1953; they were buried at Wingfield in Suffolk with his brother Samuel, who was the vicar there (and died talking to parishioners during his retirement celebrations in 1938).
The Aldwell armorial bearings are described as
Per fesse nebuly argent and sable, in chief two lions rampant of the second, and in base an osprey with wings displayed proper. Mantling sable and argent. Crest —Upon a wreath of the colours, an osprey, as m the arms, resting the dexter claw on an escutcheon of the Butler arms, namely or, a chiefindented azure.

Francis Jephcott (1890-98) [right] shuttled between Canada and various parts of England, holding 16 posts over the course of his ministry. A qualified medical doctor, he trained at Queen's College Birmingham and was ordained in 1869 in the diocese of Huron, Ontario, serving two missionary posts as a deacon, at Tilsonberg and Cannington (where a church had been established four years earlier); he returned to curacies in Runcorn in Cheshire (and only then was priested, at Chester Cathedral in 1872) and from 1874 at Kirkham in Lancashire (then in Manchester diocese). After five years as chaplain to Southwell House of Correction (where in 1877 an inmate was charged with assaulting him), and a year as a prison chaplain in Norwich, and a further brief stint at Halsall, near Ormskirk, in 1883 he was approved by SPG for missionary service (as was, in the same year, William Brown Keer, above) to serve in the diocese of Rupert's Land. He worked in Gladstone, Manitoba - returning for a year's curacy at Holy Trinity Blackburn - and from 1887 in Burk's Falls, Ontario (where the diocese of Algoma had been carved out of Toronto in 1872). He wrote to SPG You have no idea what this country is like, only here and there a few acres chopped out of the solid forest. I have often not time to eat, distances are so great, roads so bad, churches so many to attend to. I walk generally all over my mission. (It's estimated that over the course of a year he travelled 5,000 miles.)
1888 saw him back in England in a curacy at St Matthias Birmingham, and the following year as organising secretary of the Navvy Mission Society (around the time when large gangs of railway navvies were coming to an end, though it continued to organise missions and confirmations - the society eventually became part of the Industrial Christian Fellowship). St Paul's was his thirteenth post, and he stayed here longer than anywhere previously, working hard. In 1897, at the County of London Sessions, Thomas Morgan, a labourer, was convicted of snatching his watch in East Smithfield - he was part of a gang, and was sentenced to five years' penal servitude.
Three further curacies followed, at St Barnabas King Square (a daughter church of St Luke Old Street), Hoxton and Battersea, where he stayed ten years before retiring to Coventry - continuing as corresponding secretary for the Navvy Mission Society.

George Horlock (1898-1900) was ordained in Toronto in 1875 to Christ Church Holland Landing, then Bobcaydeon; he came to England and served curacies in various London parishes. After St James Curtain Road, followed by four years in Scoulton, Norfolk, he was at St Leonard Shoreditch, where in 1886 he and his wife were involved in a libel action, reported in the Hackney Express & Shoreditch Observer:
At the Worship street Police-court on Wednesday, Miss Mary Baskin, of Cornwall-road, Notting-hill, appeared to an adjourned summons, charging her with having published a certain malicious and defamatory libel concerning the Rev. George Horlock, curate of St. Leonard's Church, Shoreditch, and his wife, Charlotte Horlock ...  There was a cross-summons for libel against the Rev Mr. Horlock, aud a summons had also been granted against Miss Baskin for stealing a registered letter. The complainant, the Rev. G. Horlock, resides at North-villa, Camden Town, and the defendant, Miss Baskin, a dramatic reader, had lived as a boarder at the house. The unpleasantness seemed to have arisen from the loss of a letter, which the defendant had been accused of stealing, and since she had left the house some unpleasant correspondence had passed. Both parties complained of having been libelled, and it transpired that some of the objectionable letters on which the cross-summons had been granted had been addressed to a gentleman to whom Miss Baskin was engaged to be married. In the letters put in and read by Mr. Wontner (which were of very great length) a great many matters in dispute were touched upon, Mr and Mrs. Horlock being accused of persecuting Miss Baskin and alleging dishonesty. From all the letters read on each side, however, it was clear that both aides had attacked one another's character to the uttermost extreme, every detail of their past history being dwelt upon at great length and in offensive language. Mrs. Horlock had also joined in the correspondence, having written long letters concerning Miss Baskin. In one of these Mrs. Horlock, addressing the defendant, accused her of serious misbehaviour, and said she thought the gentleman she was engaged to must be 'blinded by love' not to see what she (the defendant) really was. This and other letters she had sent to the gentleman. The large mass of correspondence having been read, and the complainant and his wife cross-examined, the case for the complainant was completed, and the evidence was read over. The other summonses were then adjourned.

He then moved to St Mary Haggerston; to St Olave Mile End New Town (appealing in The Times of 24 December 1891 for funds towards the cost of a Christmas dinner for 500 aged poor - there will be no distinction made of creed or nationality); to St Saviour Southwark (where he conducted the marriage - described in the press as an interesting ceremony - of his stepdaughter Emily Blanche Wilde [the actress Blanche Horlock, protégé of the late lamented Carlotta Leclerq]; to Christ Church Spitalfields -
The Guardian of 16 Feb 1898 reported that At Whitechapel County Court on Friday, Judge Bacon had before him a case in which Mrs. Newbury, an inmate of the almshouses of St. Saviour's, Southwark, claimed the return of £202, money lent to the Rev. George Horlock, formerly a curate of St Saviour's and now of Spitalfields parish, and endeavoured to induce Mr. Horlock to settle the case out of court. Mr. Horlock, however, who declared the money was given as a present, refused this advice, and judgment was given for the plaintiff with costs.

It was at this point that he came to St Paul's. He went on to Holy Trinity Kilburn, and Holy Trinity Shoreditch, where he lived at Tower House, Angela Gardens - part of 'Miss Coutts' (Columbia) Market' - from where in 1912 he provided a testimonial to the beneficial effects of the tonic 'Iron Jelloids', left  (2a, with quinine, was the male version of this preparation). There were other lawsuits along the way: for example, in 1909 he gave a position to an ex-prisoner in whom a group of female parishioners had taken an 'interest' and who committed a fraud using one of his cheques.

Some of these parishes where he served matched the protestant style of St Paul's, but others were of decidedly more 'advanced' churchmanship, particularly Holy Trinity Shoreditch, where the brother of a former Vicar of Christ Church Watney Street was the incumbent (see here for details), and whose ritualistic practices were noted in the evidence to the Royal Commission on Ecclesiastical Discipline - as were those of Horlock himself, as an occasional celebrant at St Ethelburga Bishopsgate: on Ascension Day 1904 he wore vestments, acolyte in red cassock and lace trimmed cotta. The celebrant appeared to go through the Confiteor, the beatings of the breast being very noticeable. At the Incarnatus in the Nicene Creed he knelt and crossed himself at the end of the creed. He performed the ceremonial mixing and the Lavabo. He gave the Absolution with the sign of the Cross. The Benedictus qui venit and Agnus Dei were added.....  This was not a new development for him, for in 1895 Frederick George Lee had inscribed a copy of his essay 'The Sinless Conception of the Mother of God' to Horlock, with the kind comps of the author [right].

Horlock's (second?) wife Emily Kate owned property in Rochford, near Southend (where they had a home - in the summer he took in young men as boarders); they sold land for Poor Law homes. (Rochford became the centre of the Peculiar People, a puritanical Wesleyan sect founded in 1838, who refused medical treatment and embraced pacifism - later the Union of Evangelical Churches.) He died intestate in 1923, at Spider Hall Farm, Lower Raydon in Suffolk.

Henry Mason (1899-1900) trained at St Bees as was ordained in 1878, serving his title at Stokesley near Middlesborough in York diocese. Two further curacies, in Southwark and Haydock, followed before he went to Melrose in South Australia. He returned in 1888 to a curacy in Canning Town, and three years later went to Western Australia - Pinjarrah, and Southern Cross. Back in London in 1895, he was curate St Simon Zelotes in Bethnal Green before coming to St Paul's; further curacies followed at St Botolph Aldersgate, St James Curtain Road, St Bartholomew Dalson, All Saints Haggerston and Holy Trinity South Tottenham (where in 1918 his wife was burnt  to death - he returned home to find the house enveloped in flames); he retired to Fulham and died in the mid-1920s.

Twentieth century

Edward John Clark (1900-02) - a London University graduate ordained in 1895, he served curacies in Liverpool (St Silas and St Mark) and at Burnham in Norfolk before coming to St Paul's, after which he returned to Burham. A further curacy in the other Whitechapel (Lancashire) followed, and the remainder of his ministry was in the diocese of York - curacies in Hull, Middlesborough, Ravenscar before he became Vicar of St Mark-in-the-Groves Hull in 1921, remaining there for over 15 years. (His wife appeared in the Women's Who's Who as daughter of Edward Bottomley and guide captain in the parish!) The church was badly damaged in the war and demolished in 1958; it is now an industrial site.

Thomas Elms Fisher (1901-03) - of Trinity College Dublin, was deaconed in Ireland in 1899 to the parish of Kenmare before coming to this parish (and priested by the Bishop of London); further London curacies followed at South Tottenham, Limehouse, Somers Town, Pimlico and Queensgate before he was appointed as rector of Yelling in Huntingdonshire (a Crown living) in 1912. There he appears to have had trouble with his commuted tithes, for under the terms of a private Act of Parliament of 1819 For inclosing Lands within the Parish of Yelling, in the County of Huntingdon, and for making a Compensation for the Tithes,  he applied to the Huntingdon Quarter Sessions in 1920 for the appointment of three arbitrators or referees to determine the average price of a Winchester bushel of good, marketable wheat within the said county of Huntingdon for the fourteen years then last past.
Musical Times reviewer in 1924 slated one of his published compositions as unspeakably bad.... with all respect, I commend the old saw about the cobbler and his last..... He retired in 1927 to Hove and died in 1938.

Ernest Potter Oates (1902-??) was born in Sculcoates, Hull in 1864, trained at King's College London was ordained in 1887 to St Anne Hoxton, but within a year moved to Scotland (or 'North Britain' as it was then ecclesiastically called): parishes in Jedburgh and Tain. Successive curacies brought him gradually back to London: Heworth (near Jarrow), Alrewas (Staffordshire), St Botolph Lincoln (in 1898), and then St Barnabas Bethnal Green. He married Lucy Annie Sylvester in Burton-on-Trent in 1898; they had two sons, Cecil and Ernest, and another child who died. After his time here (how long did he stay? they were living in Bow in the 1911 census, and until the end of the War) he served a final curacy in Tottenham for seven years before finally getting his own parish in 1925 - Newborough with Borough Fen, in Peterborough diocese (a Crown living), where he remained until his death in 1938. See here for the overlaps in ministry with his brother Sinclair, one-time curate at St Mark Whitechapel - who, perhaps because he was rather more 'advanced' in his churchmanship, never got his own parish!

Joshua Powell Parry (1903-07) was the Vicar's brother. He was born in 1871 in Flint, and like other clerical members of the family attended Liverpool Institute and studied at Jesus College Cambridge. St Paul's was his title parish, after which he spent four years as the first chaplain of South Perak, living in Batu Gajah, and overseeing the building of what was then the largest church in the Malay States, St John's Ipoh, consecrated in 1912 [right]: it was to have been stone-faced but they had to economise and use brick. (During the Japanese occupation it was used as a noodle factory.) See here for details of its centenary celebrations. On his return he held a succession of posts in various dioceses - as a licensed preacher in Norwich, a curate in Ipswich, ten years as Vicar of Bilsdale in Yorkshire, and one year as Vicar of St Stephen Ayres Quay in Bishop Wearmouth, ended in 1925 by the issue of a receiving order for bankruptcy (he had moved to Cromer, living at 'Linkside' - now an extended residential development). Two years later he was given permission to officiate in Fishponds, and then a curacy at Thornbury (both in Gloucester diocese). He died in 1930, a year after his older sister Catherine Margaret, who was an inmate of the West Riding Mental Hospital in Clifton, and whose affairs he had looked after.

Matthew Henry Boden (1907-08) - previously a schoolmaster in the Midlands, he was ordained from St Bees in 1885. After a curacy (Narborough) and two 3-year incumbencies (Countesthorpe and Naseby) in Peterborough diocese and a curacy in Fulham in 1900 (where he was interviewed for the Booth Archive - B264, pages 12-25) he went to serve in South Africa, at St Barnabas Capetown, and in the aftermath of the Boer War was invalided back on The Assaye the following year. Various curacies followed - after Wateringbury he came here, and after a gap went to Twickenham, Hammersmith, Lewes, Haggerston and Hoxton, retiring in 1929 to Earley, near Reading. His son Cecil Arthur trained at Mirfield, and while vicar of that parish married Ceylon-born Doris Eirene Bowden-Smith, moving in 1920 to Boxford, Newbury where her mother was the patron.

George Alexander Dunlop (1908-13), born c1869, was a Glasgow graduate. By 1901 (census) he was an acting army chaplain, living in Shoeburyness with his wife Jenny and sons George and Maxwell, and he was ordained in 1905 to St Mary Whitechapel before coming to this parish (living at 11 Dock Street). After a year as curate of St Andrew Undershaft in the City (the parish's income provided the stipend for the first Bishop of Islington), living at 8 The Crescent, Minories (now with four further children, plus a governess and a cook), he became Vicar of St Mary Leeds in 1914, where in 1917 he was declared bankrupt (discharged in 1920 having paid his creditors 5½d in the £), but remained in post until the mid-1930s. In 1933 he conducted the marriage of his daughter Dorothy to Roderick Dhu Drummond (an accountant!) His namesake son George, born in 1900, was conscripted in 1918 while a student at Leeds University; he died at Caringbah, New South Wales in 1967.

St Mary, Quarry Hill, Leeds was built in 1823 (and consecrated in 1826 by the Archbishop of York, with the Vicar of Leeds as patron) as a Waterloo / Commissioners' / Million Act church for the new urban areas; designed by Thomas Taylor in 'simplified Early English' style, at a cost of £12,520, it seated 1200 [right, pre-1950 before slum clearance: the tower was demolished in 1979 and the rest soon after].

St Mary Leeds' chief claim to fame is that Geoffrey Anketell Studdert Kennedy (1883-1929) began his life in its sprawling vicarage (the seventh of nine children). He was a pupil at Leeds Grammar School, deferring a scholarship to Trinity College Dublin (aged 14) but eventually graduating there in classics and divinity in 1904. After a year's training at Ripon College, he was ordained in 1910 and served his title in Rugby and became vicar of St Paul Worcester in 1914 (in its poorest area of Blockhouse Fields). On the outbreak of war, he volunteered as a chaplain on the Western Front, where he became known as 'Woodbine Willie' because he offer cigarettes as well as spiritual consolation. He won the Military Cross on 1917 at Messines Ridge after running into no man's land to help the wounded. His poems Rough Rhymes of a Padre (1918), and More Rough Rhymes (1919) - some in dialect, others expressing his deeply-held catholic sacramental theology - remain a poignant and fascinating record of these years. Some dismissed them as sentimental, but they made a strong impact, and together with other verses (such as Peace Rhymes of a Padre, The Sorrow of God and other poems (1921) and Songs of Faith and Doubt (1922) remained in print for some years. with a collected edition in 1929. In The Unutterable Beauty he remarked ruefully, and with painful insight, on his nickname:
They gave me this name like their nature / Compacted of laughter and tears, / A sweet that was born of the bitter, / A joke that was torn from the years.
Of their travail and torture, Christ's fools, / Atoning my sins with their blood, / Who grinned in their agony sharing / The glorious madness of God.
Their name! Let me hear it - the symbol / Of unpaid - unpayable debt, / For the men to whom I owed God's Peace, /  I put off with a cigarette.

Like other military chaplains who came to experience the huge gulf between the church's teaching and the life and experience of working men, he failed to settle into post-war ministry. He was based for a time at St Edmund King & Martyr in Lombard Street, where he wrote Lies (1919); Democracy and the Dog-Collar (1921) (with chapters such as The Church Is Not a Movement but a Mob; Capitalism is Nothing But Greed, Grab, and Profit-Mongering; and So-Called Religious Education Worse than Useless); Food for the Fed Up (1921, republished in 1928 as I Believe: Sermons on the Apostles' Creed); The Wicket Gate (1923); and The Word and the Work (1925). Though his Christian Socialist and pacifist views were controversial, he was appointed a royal chaplain by King George V in 1920. He toured the country as a speaker for the Industrial Christian Fellowship, appearing at many crusades in the industrial cities; but died in Liverpool [or was it Manchester?] in 1929, of chronic asthma and overwork, aged 45. Many wanted him to be buried at Westminster Abbey, but the Dean refused permission, regarding him as common and uncouth. Worcester, which (as his wife Emma stressed) he loved, proved a more fitting site. At his burial 2,000 people lined the streets, some throwing Woodbine packets onto his cortège. A plaque in the cathedral, where he used to preach to the troops from nearby Norton Barracks - right - marks his death, and the Social Services building in Spring Gardens is named in his memory. There is also a plaque - right - in Ripon (site of the former clergy college), dedicated in 2013 by John Packer, former bishop of Ripon and Leeds.
The most recent of a number of biographies, drawing on others' work (eg J.K. Mosley (ed) G.A. Studdert Kennedy - By his friends (1929); W.E. Purcell (1962), W Grundy, Woodbine Willie: An Anglican IncidentA Fiery Glow in the Darkness: Woodbine Willie, Padre and Priest (1997). Stephen Louden Chaplains in Conflict (1996), Joanna Bourke An Intimate History of Killing (2009), Edward Madigan Faith Under Fire: Anglican Chaplsins and the Great War (2011), and Michael Snape & Edward Madigan The Clergy in Khaki (2013) - is by the 'good man of Glasgow', Bob Holman, a Christian academic who has committed himself to living alongside the disadvantaged on the Easterhouse estate in that city: Woodbine Willie: an Unsung Hero of World War One (Lion 2013). Studdert Kennedy is commemorated in the Anglican calendar (and also that of the American Episcopal Church) on 8 March. We will hopefully hear more about this emblematic character in the centenary commemorations of the First World War. See a sermon about him here.

John Evans Hughes (1913-??) - born at Llanddewi Brefi around 1877, he was a boarder at Ystrad Meurig Grammar School, and after St John's College Cambridge was ordained in 1908 in St Asaph diocese, with curacies in Newtown (Montgomeryshire, now Powys) and Hawarden (Flintshire), marrying Elizabeth (Bessie) Price Davies, from his home town, in 1910, before coming here. How long he stayed in unclear - he was living in West Kensington by 1919, when he was appointed to the Crown living of Dolfor, in Montgomeryshire, moving to further incumbenices in 1922 at Holt and 1927 at Llanwddyn, near Oswestry (where in the 1880s the original village [right] had been flooded for the creation of Lake Vyrnwy to supply water to Liverpool). He died around 1948, aged 71.

There followed a long period without curates, apart from the remarkable Admiral Woods who was Chaplain of the Red Ensign Club and honorary curate of the parish. But during Fr Joe Williamson's time, there were two stipendiary curates.

Gordon Budd [left, and with his wife in 1962], born 1908, served his title here from 1953-55, having trained at Lincoln Theological College after many years in the Navy. He and his wife lived in poor accommodation in Chamber Street. They ran a successful youth club; he was very practical (especially with electrical items) and she was the sacristan. After a second curacy in Stoke Newington he became Rector of Bacton with Wyverstone, near Stowmarket, in 1958, and in 1961 moved to Scotland: to Holy Trinity Stirling, then in 1974 to St Ninian Aberdeen (a struggling estate church, now attached to the Cathedral), and in 1976 to Dufftown, where he died in 1988.

Samuel Hugh Stowell Akinsope (Sammy or Sope) Johnson (1955-58) [right] - a Nigerian whose middle names are those of a famous 19th century Evangelical preacher and church planter from Salford! - who had trained at Lichfield Theological College, and served his title here, living on the top floor of the vicarage; he was popular as a visitor, with local folk as much as with incomers, and played cricket and football with the boys and adults of the parish. Three further curacies, at Sunbury, Maida Hill and St Martin-in-the-Fields (which had sponsored him) followed while he studied theology at London University (St Paul's gave his hood when he graduated in 1961). He then returned to Nigeria, later becoming the national head of religious broadcasting, and was Provost of Christ Church Cathedral, Lagos from 1970 to his retirement in 1995. In 1975 he was involved in a conflict with the bishop (his predecessor as provost) over the introduction of contemporary forms of worship, and was briefly suspended; this report give a full account (some of the terminology is inaccurate). His is the fourth generation of the family to be involved in ministry in Nigeria; see this article, by his son (then an archdeacon, and from 2009 the next-but-one Provost after his father) on the slave trade.

See here for the period after the merger with St George-in-the-East when Joseph Thomas Davies was curate-in-charge.

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