Ratcliff(e) Highway (later St George's Street / now The Highway)
and streets off
|Extraordinary Escape of A Tiger in Ratcliff Highway: Frightful Attack of the Animal on a Boy [27 October 1857]
Yesterday, between twelve and one o'clock at noon, the inhabitants of St George's-in-the-East (alias Ratcliff Highway), were suddenly thrown into a state of utmost alarm in consequence of the escape of a large tiger from the warehouse of Mr Jamrach, the extensive importer of wild beasts, &c., of No. 180, Ratcliff Highway, where by a boy, named John Wade, aged five years, was very seriously injured, and other parties' lives were placed in great jeopardy.
It appears that yesterday morning Mr Jamrach received several boxes, containing two tigers, a lion, and other animals, from the steam ship Germany, lying off Hambro' Wharf, near the Custom House, Lower Thames Street, City. The packages were safely placed in a van, and conveyed to the warehouse in Betts Street, St George's-in-the-East, followed by a crowd of men, women and children, where a number of labourers adopted means to unload the vehicle. They had removed several boxes into the premises in safety, and had just lowered a large ironbound cage on to the pavement in front of the gateway, when Police Constable Stewart requested the persons standing round to keep back in case of accident.The next moment the occupant (a fine full-sized tiger) became restless, and forced out one end of the cage, when the spectators rushed in every direction from the spot in a state of extreme terror. The tiger appeared to be in a state of madness, and ran along the pavement in the direction of Ratcliff Highway, when it seized the little boy, John Wade, by the upper part of the right arm.
The enraged animal was followed by Mr Jamrach and his men several yards, when the former obtained possession of a crowbar and struck the tiger upon the head and nose, which caused it to relinquish its hold. On the meantime ropes were procured, and the savage beast was secured and dragged into the premises, where it was firmly fastened up by the keepers. The poor boy was raised up by Stewart, the police officer, in a state of great suffering with two severe lacerated wounds on the arm and right side of the face, and it was quite a miracle that he was not torn to pieces. The teeth of the animal passed completely through the right arm.
A cab was procured, in which the wounded boy was conveyed to the London Hospital, where Mr Forbes, the house surgeon, rendered assistance. The boy was in a very low state from loss of blood from the wounds, and last evening, at seven o'clock, he was in a very precarious condition, both from the injuries and shock to the system through fright. At the time of the escape of the animal the tradespeople in the neighbourhood closed their shops, and remained in a state of fear and anxiety for nearly half and hour afterwards.
It seems that Mr Jamrach is an extensive importer and exported of all kinds of wild beasts and foreign birds, which he forwards to all parts of the world for menageries and private collections.
Extraordinary Fight [14 November 1857]
Our readers doubtless noticed, a few days back, an account of a tiger which escaped from a cattle truck in Ratcliff Highway, London, and which, after running along the centre of the road for some distance, was caught by his keeprs in the act of tearing a lad who unfortunately crossed the animal's path. The tiger was the property of Mr Jamrach, and he sold it a day or two afterwards to Mr Edmonds [for £200], the successor of Wombell, for his well-known travelling menageries, which it joined on Monday at West Bromwich. It was placed in one of the ordinary carriages, of two compartments, the adjoining den being occupied by a very fine lion, six or seven years old, for which Mr Edmonds gave £300 three years ago. The attendants had all left the menagerie to go to breakfast, when suddenly those in the carriage which the proprietors occupy was alarmed by an unusual outcry among the beasts. They soon discovered the cause. The newly-bought tiger had burglariously broken through the 'slide' or partition dividng his den from that of the lion, and had the latter in his terrible grasp.
The combat which ensured was a terrific one. The lion acted chiefly on the defensive, and having probably been considerably tamed by his three years' confinement, the tiger had the advantage. His attacks were of the most ferocious kind. The lion's mane saved his head and neck from being much injured, but the savage assailant at last successed in ripping up his belly, and then the poor animal was at the tiger's mercy. The lion was dead in a few minutes.
The scene was a fearful one. The inmates of every den seemed to be excited by the conflict, an their roaring and howling might have been heard a quarter of a mile distant. Of course Mr Edmonds and his men could not interfere while the conflict lasted, but when the tiger's fury had subsided they managed to remove the carcase. He must have used his paws as a sort of batterning ram against the partitition, as it was pushed rather than torn down. He cost Mr Edmonds £400.
which until within the last few years was
the sights of the metropolis, and almost unique in Europe as a scene
of coarse riot and debauchery, is now chiefly noteworthy as an
example of what may be done by effective police supervision
thoroughly carried out. The dancing-rooms arid foreign cafés
Highway — now rechristened St.
George’s-street — are still
well worthy a visit from the student of human nature, and are each,
for the most part, devoted almost exclusively to the
of a single nationality.
Thus at the Rose and Crown, near the western end of the Highway, the company will be principally Spanish and Maltese. At the Preussische Adler, just by the entrance into Wellclose-square, you will meet, as might be anticipated, German sailors; whilst Lawson’s, a little farther east, though kept by a German, finds its clientele among the Norwegian and Swedish sailors, who form no inconsiderable or despicable portion of the motley crews of our modem mercantile fleet. Over the way, a little farther down, is the Italian house, a quaint and quiet place, full of models and 'curios' of every conceivable and inconceivable description, and nearly opposite the large and strikingly clean caravanserai, where a pretty, but anxious-looking Maid of Athens receives daily, with a hospitality whose cordiality hardly seems to smack of fear, any number of gift-bearing Greeks. These two latter, by-the-way, are not dancing-rooms, but boarding-houses pure and simple; whilst farther still to the eastward is yet another variety in the shape of a music hall, where Dolly Dripping, the cook, in a draggled old print gown and a huge (natural) moustache; and Corporal Coldmutton, of the Guards, in a cast militia tunic, and a tattered pair of mufti inexpressibles; and Pleeseman X 999, in the general get up of a Guy Fawkes in a bankrupt pantomime, make simple fun for the edification of Quashie and Sambo, whose shining ebony faces stand jovially out even against the grimy blackness of the wails.
Perfectly well conducted is the performance at the Bell, without the smallest need to shrink from comparison in that respect with the first of our West-end music halls. The performance is not of a refined description, nor is the audience; but it is just possible that, from an exclusively moral point of view, the advantage may even be proved to be not altogether on the side of the higher refinement. Hard by Quashie’s music-hall is a narrow passage, dull and empty, even at the lively hour of 11 pm., through which, by devious ways, we penetrate at length to a squalid cul-de-sac, which seems indeed the very end of all things. Chaos and space are here at present almost at odds which is which, for improvement has at the present moment only reached the point of partial destruction, and some of the dismal dog-holes still swarm with squalid life, while others gape tenantless and ghastly with sightless windows and darksome doorways, waiting their turn to be swept away into the blank open space that yawns by their side.
At the bottom of this slough of grimy Despond is the little breathless garret where Johnny the Chinaman swelters night and day curled up on his gruesome couch, carefully toasting in the dim flame of a smoky lamp the tiny lumps of delight which shall transport the opium-smoker for awhile into his paradise. If you are only a casual visitor you will not care for much of Johnny’s company, and will speedily find your way down the filthy creaking stairs into the reeking outer air, which appears almost fresh by contrast. Then Johnny, whose head and stomach are seasoned by the unceasing opium pipes of forty years, shuts the grimy window down with a shudder as unaffected as that with which you just now opened it, and toasts another little dab of the thick brown drug in readiness for the next comer. But if you visit Johnny as a customer, you pay your shilling, and curl yourself up on another grisly couch, which almost fills the remainder of the apartment. Johnny hands you an instrument like a broken-down flageolet, and the long supple brown fingers cram into its microscopic bowl the little modicum of magic, and you suck hard through it at the smoky little flame, and—if your stomach be educated and strong — pass duly off into elysium.
Then, when your blissful dream is over, you go your way, a wiser if not a sadder man. Perhaps the most appropriate visit you can next pay is to the casual ward of St. George’s Workhouse, hard by, at the bottom of Old Gravel-lane, and thence, if it be not too late in the evening, to the mission church of St. Peter’s, Dock-street, hard by, where you will find in full work an agency which, if the people of the neighbourhood are to be believed, has had in the marvellous transformation which has taken place a more potent influence oven than police and parliament combined. Returning thence to Shadwell High-street, you may visit the White Swan, popularly known as 'Paddy’s Goose', once the uproarious rendezvous of half the tramps and thieves of London, now quiet, sedate, and, to confess the truth, dull—very dull [it housed a Wesleyan mission - see here for details: sketch left shows 'evangelical mission' next door; photo from 1926]. Down to the right here, again, is the little waterside police-station, where the grim harvest of the 'drag', the weird flotsam and jetsam of the cruel river, lies awaiting the verdict that will— let us hope— 'find it Christian burial'. And so back into the highway again, and up Cannon-street road, where stands St. George’s Church, the scene of the famous riots of 1858-59, which gave the first popular impulse to the 'ritualistic' movement, and out into the wide Commercial-road, the boundary of 'Jack’s' dominion, beyond which again lie the bustling ‘Yiddisher' quarter of Whitechapel and the swarming squalor of Spitalfields.
Specification of the Patent granted to MATTHIAS ARCHIBALD ROBINSON for improvements in the mode of preparing the vegetable matter commonly called pearl barley, and grits, or groats, made from the corn of barley, and oats, by which material, when so prepared, a superior mucilaginous beverage, may be produced in a few minutes.
all to whom these presents shall come &c. Now know ye,
that in compliance with the said proviso, I, the said Matthias
Archibald Robinson, do hereby declare, that the nature of my said
invention, and the manner in which the same is to be performed, are
particularly described and ascertained in the following description
thereof: (that is to say) My invention of certain improvements in the
modes of preparing the vegetable matters, commonly called pearl
barley, and grits or groats, consists of a peculiar mode of drying,
and otherwise treating the grain, by which process its vegetative
properties are destroyed, and a meal is produced, divested of rawness
and free from the impurities of husk or fibre, which meal, when so
prepared, is soluble in water and will make a fine mucilage, in a few
minutes. Any quantity of pearl barley, or groats, intended to be
operated upon, is taken in the state it is usually sold, and the
first process in preparing is to cleanse it, by winnowing from seeds,
husks, dirt, dust, and other impurities. After this the grain is
carefully looked over, and any extraneous matters, which have not
been separated by the winnowing separated by winnowing, are then
picked out. In this cleansed state, the grain is put into sieves, and
spread over their bottoms in level layers, about three quarters of an
inch thick. The sieves are then deposited on ledges, in closets
heated by steam boxes, or steam passages, the temperature of which
should be gradually increased to 160° or 170° of Fahrenheit's
thermometer. Under this temperature the grain must be suffered to
remain, drying gradually, for about four hours, the aqueous parts
evaporated, being drawn off by suitable pipes, leading from the hot
closets. By these means, the vegetative properties of the grain will
be destroyed, and the raw taste removed, without parching or roasting
it. When the grain has been thus sufficiently dried, it is spread out
in hoppers, or troughs, to cool, and when that is effected, it is to
be passed through funnels, to the hoppers, down to steel mills, (if
ground by stone, they are liable to gritty substances;) where it is
ground by steam, or any other efficient power; sliders must be
introduced into the funnels, for the purpose of regulating the
supply. The meal, falling from the steel mills, is received into
boxes or receivers, and is thence removed, for dressing, into bolting
machinery of the ordinary construction. The cylinders of the bolting
machines should be made of fine wire gauze, from twenty-four, to
forty-eight, in the inch, and when the meal has passed through the
finest of these, it may be considered to be completely fit for use. A
table-spoonful of the prepared barley meal, may be mixed up in two
spoonsful of cold water, and when perfectly smooth, one quart of
boiling water is to be poured upon it. This being suffered to boil
for ten minutes, will produce the mucilage called barley water, which
should be then strained through muslin, if required, flavoured with
lemon peel or juice, and sweetened with honey, refined sugar, or
sugar candy An excellent food for infants may be made, by mixing the
above proportion with milk and water, instead of water alone. It will
also be found to be a very desirable material for thickening broths;
it may be mixed and introduced into the broth half an hour before it
is taken off the fire. Puddings, of an excellent quality, may also be
made from the prepared barley meal; the powder of the prepared groats
is to be mixed in the same way, and a gruel may be produced in ten
minutes, of a quality very much superior to any other gruel, made
from any preparation of grits or oatmeal, heretofore introduced to
the public. I am aware, that several variations may be made in the
process above described; but I wish it to be understood that I rest
my claim of patent right, in a method or methods of drying the grain
under a regular temperature, without roasting or parching, it so as
to destroy its vegetative properties, and at the same time retain its
nutritive qualities unimpaired, and of clearing it from its fibrous
and husky parts, after grinding, leaving only the pure and fine meal;
by which preparation, the meal is brought into a condition, that will
enable it to keep perfectly good, in any climate.
firm was now known as Keen, Robinson & Co, a limited liability company, blue starch and mustard manufacturers, though there was a
spat with the Post Office over using the full name 'Keen, Robinson,
Belleville & Company' on their letter dies: they were
unsuccessfully reported to Mr Boucher, Controller of the Circulation
Department for infringing the regulations.
merger required a larger factory, which was built in the 1880s in Denmark [now
Crowder] Street, with offices at St George's Street [now The Highway]. It was known as 'New Central'. Left is the exterior, and right the
barley mills (powered by a beam engine) and the mustard packing room,
together with an 1864 mustard advertisement. From that year they also advertised as agents for 'Oswego prepared corn starch', a
popular export to Australia at the time, where many settlers' cooking facilities
were limited. In 1866 they were also advertising split peas and pearl barley, and in 1872 finest Spanish semolina, of which one commentator said it was particularly white, and seemed well-prepared; it was sold in 1lb tin canisters.They won a prize medal in Dublin in 1862 [left] - where they also displayed 'Bruges chicory', as a coffee additive or substitute; were award winners in the British section at the 1876 Philadelphia International Exhibtion; exhibited genuine mustard and process of manufacture at the 1866/7 Paris exhibition; they also won medals in London, Moscow and Australia.
At Shepton Mallet Petty Sessions, Mrs. Caroline Everett, grocer, of Shepton Mallet, was charged by Mr. Bisgood, deputy chief constable of Somerset, with selling adulterated arrowroot. Police- constable Hoddinott stated that he went to the defendant's shop and asked for an ounce of arrowroot, in order that he might have it analysed. Mr. Bowden, the assistant, brought into the shop a tin box of arrowroot that had not previously been opened, and opened it in the presence of witness, and supplied him with arrowroot therefrom. The box was labelled 'warranted genuine', and Mr. Bowden wrote similar words on the packet he produced. Mr. Bisgood proved taking the samples to Mr. W. W. Stoddort, Park Street, the county analyst. He had since received a certificate from Mr Stoddart, which he handed in. It stated that the srrowroot in question contained 50 per cent. of cassava starch. Mr. Wontner, of London, who appeared for the wholesale house that supplied the the arrowroot, said he represented the firm of Keen, Robinson, Bellville, and Company, of London, who had sold the arrowroot to Mrs. Everett, and were also themselves summoned. On the part of Mrs. Everett, he submitted that she has sold the arrowroot in the same condition that she bought it, and had given notivce to that effect when she sold it to the constable. She was therefore protected by the 25th section of the Act. The bench agreed with this opinion, and dismissed the case. Mr. William John Bellville, trading as Keen, Robinson, Bellville, and Company, spice merchants, of no.6, Garlick-hill, Cannon-street, London, was next charged with selling fourteen pounds of adulterate arrowroot to Mrs. Everett. Mr. Wontner said the facts were admitted by the firm, who claimed the same protection under the Act as Mrs. Everett, and would prove that they had sold the arrowroot in precisely the same condition as they had bought it, and as it was imported. It was the custom of the firm he represented to submit samples of all goods purchased by them to Mr. Piesse, the public analyst of the Strand, for analysis, before warranting them to their customers, but during last summer Mr. Bellville was out of town, for the benefit of his health, and Mr. Swinbourne their spice buyer and salesman, was laid up for six weeks by an accident, and when he returned to business he found a great demand for Natal arrowroot, and he went into the market and bought six cases under warranty from sworn brokers, and being anxious to supply the customers of the firm he did not wait to have it analysed. Since these proceedings had been taken they sent a sample to Mr. Piesse,who found the arrowroot wa not genuine, and they had accordingly withdrawn all they had sold from that lot. It contained a mixture of starch of cassava, which was a wild arrowroot. He also thought that as this description of goods was imported and passed through the Custom-house its purity should be guaranteed, as in the case of tea. Mr. Swinbourne the spice buyer and salesman of the defendant, was then called, and he proved purchasing the arrowroot of Messrs Bryant and Wheeler as it was imported, and selling the same to Mrs. Everett. The Chairman of the Bench (Capt Ernst) said the only difference they could see in the two cases was that Mrs. Everett had given notice that she sold the arrowroot in the same condition that she bought it, and the defendants had not; they would therefore have to pay the costs, and the case would be dismissed.
person who had a lifelong career with the company was William
Mansfield, who in 1891 was living in Whitfield Street, near Tottenham
Court Road with his wife Elizabeth and to young sons; in 1901 at 5
Bewley Street (see here for the Dellow and Bewley Buildings). Ten years later (having retired?) he was back west, off Regent Street.
So he appears to have straddled the amalgamated firm's two bases. (We're grateful to his great-granddaughter Gill Harden for this and other family information.)
On 19 June 1897 the Brisbane Queenslander reported:
|Among the leading firms in the mustard and kindred trades none is better known than Messrs. Keen, Robinson, and Co., Limited, with head offices at Garlick Hill, Cannon-street, E.C., and such a firm, though well known and old established, is not likely to be behindhand when an exhibition Is to be held at a leading centre of British colonial trade. They have therefore prepared a very striking show of their goods. On the several levels the firm's specialities, for which they have been so long celebrated, are ranged, and In well got up cases are shown stereos [sic] of the various medals acquired. The upper part of the stand is taken up with four splendid shields bearing the name of the firm, and the date established—1742. The eye being thus attracted, we turn to the exhibits themselves, and find specimens of Keen's mustard and Oxford blues for laundry purposes, while the second name in the firm is associated with Robinson's patent groats, first introduced in 1823, a speciality which has obtained a world-wide reputation for making gruel, so necessary to nursing mothers and invalids. Another article bearing Robinson's name is the firm's patent barley, brought out at the same time as the groats, and which is a preparation for making barley water in ten minutes, as against the old fashioned way, which we all know takes hours. The medical profession have discovered that this is one if not the best of foods for Infants, while barley water, mixed with milk, separates the caseine, and thus enables the weakest child to digest cow's milk, when it is deprived of its natural food from the breast. A more modern article on this stand is the Waverley oats. This has become also very popular, and takes! the place of oatmeal as a porridge for breakfast. It Is partly cooked, and therefore requires only ten minutes to prepare for the table. Another article shown, and which is fully appreciated in the colony, is Keen's Oxford blue. It is packed in loz. and ½oz. squares, also In circular blocks wrapped in calico ready for use. The manufacturers claim superiority on the ground of cleanliness, solubility, and economy, and, with their long reputation to preserve, it may be fairly certain their claims are good ones. Adjoining their stand is the office, and no effort has been spared even here to make a show. Every particle of space has been utilised to exhibit specimens of the firm's well-known cards and frames, each of which is a work of art in itself. Messrs. D. L. Brown and Co. are the Brisbane agents for the products of Messrs. Keen, Robinson, and Co., Limited.|
following well-known preparations were exhibited:
Robinson's Patent Barley. A pure farina of the finest Scotch barley. Barley-water for summer drinks for invalids, and as a diluent of milk for babies, can be quickly and economically made from it. Sufferers from stone or gravel should drink freely of barley water. Barley water as a diluent of milk is being recommended by the medical profession generally.
Robinson's Patent Groats. A pure farina of the finest oats grown in Scotland. Gruel made with milk is most nutritious, delicious, and digestible. Suitable for infants when weaned - as it produces bone and muscle - nursing mothers, invalids, and the aged. Note: Colman's Sinapisms [mustard plaster] are more effectual than those made abroad.
[Right is an 1894 advertisement.]
The British Journal of Nursing Supplement of 1914 added: The value of barley water as a dilutent of milk is well known, and that made from Robinson's Patent Barley is found most successful in use, both in the case of infants, when breast feeding is impossible, and also as a summer drink for invalids. It is supplied by Keen, Robinson & Co, Ltd Denmark Street, London E.
the Trade Boards Act of 1909 - an innovative if somewhat bureaucratic
piece of legislation - a Board was set up (in 1914, for three
years and thereafter until dissolved) for those involved in making tinplate
boxes and canisters (excluding the sealing of filled boxes and
canisters with solder, and excluding the following branches of work,
namely, the lining of packing-cases with tinplate, the making of
trunks, uniform cases, suit and dress cases, bonnet and helmet boxed,
cash and deed-boxes, despatch boxes, letter-boxes, kegs and drums,
and any other branch of work which does not form part of the tin box
and canister trade), with 29 nominees each from employers and
employees. Among the former was Mr T. Balls of Keen Robinson &
Mustard Club was created in the 1930s, with badges and 'inner secrets',
and prepared mustard baths were sold in this period. In
'ready to use' Barley Water - a prepared drink of barley, lemon juice, sugar and
water - was created for the Wimbledon tennis championships and
became a popular summer drink, not just for invalids! [Advertisements right from 1939 - along with continued advertising of barley and groats for nursing mothers - and 1953.] In 1956 Colmans became part of Reckitt and Colman (the name Colman Keen continued in New Zealand and elsewhere), and in 1995 was
sold to Unilever (Britvic taking over the Robinson's brand). McCormick took over the Keen's brand in Canada and
Australia, where Norwich-made products are still available (including genuine double superfine dry mustard, by appointment to Queen
Elizabeth II, as well as prepared mustard).'Keen's Curry' T-shirts were also produced.
Yeatman & Co
was established in 1857 by Israel Edward Woolf, at 119 New Bond Street (where another family venture, the Atmospheric Churn Company, selling refrigeration and butter churning equipment, with agencies in Brussels and Berlin, was dissolved in 1889 and finally wound up in 1906). Their success in selling yeast powder to the troops abroad enabled the setting up of the factory in Denmark Street. They diversified: at their 1884 stand at the Health Exhibition (still using the New Bond Street address), they advertised Yeast Powder, Baking Powders, Flour, Self-raising Flour, Corn Flour, Callsayme Bitters* , Lime-juice Cordial, Custard Powder, Egg Powders, Curry Powder, Flavouring Essences, Disinfecting Powder and Insect Powder; left is their range as advertised in Charles Clarke's High Class Cookery (1885).
[*Calisayine Cocktail Bitters was based on the South American bark from which quinine is obtained - they also made a quinine wine.]
The Nursing Record & Hospital World for 1899 commended their ginger marmalade and coffee extract, as tasting more of coffee than other similar products.
It became a limited liability company in 1898, with capital of £200,000, based at 11 Denmark [later renamed Crowder] Street, with an office at 78 St George's Street, and their box-making department, the Yebel Press, at 41-43 St George's Street ('Yebel' remained the company's telegraphic address, hinting at its Jewish roots - it is the Hebrew word for 'mountain'). By now as well as cornflour and vinegar they were also making soups, jams, jellies and sweets, in the early years of the 20th century exporting to Australasia 'Yeatman's Delicious Jelly Tablets' in a range of flavours [right]. In the following years suppliers in England and New Zealand were selling 2lb. jars of 'St George's Jam' - was this also a Yeatman's product? In the 1930s, they were one of the first suppliers of sweets to Marks & Spencers. Denys Munby, in his exhaustive 1951 review of industry in Stepney, notes that they were one of three small sweet-making factories left in Stepney.Their premises suffered in the Blitz, and the jam factory was destroyed by fire in 1946, though they retained their head office here for some time (telephone ROYal 6877 - the local exchange - as well as PUTney 6333).
With government help to get war-damaged firms back on their feet, in 1942 they established Cherry Tree Works in Watford, where
they canned and bottled fruit, made fruit squashes, and their
best-remembered product, Sunny Spread (a blend of honey and invert sugar).
Left are advertisements from
1953 and (with a price-cut) 1954, and an image of the characteristic
jar. In the 1960s they advertised in the British Bee Journal attractive
addressed honey labels - 250 for 8s. 6d., 500 for 16s., 1,000 for
26s; samples 2d.; gold lacquered snap-on lids, for jam
jars, 14s. 6d. a gross. Inigo Woolf
(chief executive of the London Diocesan Board for Schools) recalls
touring this factory when his grandfather was the managing director -
he was the youngest brother of 15 children, taking over from two
brothers twenty years his senior; we are grateful to Inigo for many of these details. They were proud of their technical
innovations (including keeping the colour of cherries in prepared
the business was sold to Cavenham Foods, and production transferred to
Carlisle, the Watford works became the headquarters of Mothercare; the
family retained some of their recipes, including that for Christmas
While I was thus hammering out some new design on the Anvil of
experience, I bethought my self where probably I might find my Wife:
First, I went to Ratcliff high-way, and made enquiry of Dammaris,
&c., the Metropolitan Bawd of those parts, for a Gentlewoman of such
a complexion, stature, and age, ('twas but a folly to mention her name,
for those that follow that trade change their names as often as they do
their places of abode) but that cart-load of flesh could give me no
information, neither was it possible for me to have staid to hear it,
she so stunk of Strong-waters, stronger then that Cask that never
contained any thing else; I went down all along to the Cross, in my way
I saw many Whores standing at their doors, giving me invitation; but
being poor, they could not afford the charge of Fucus,
so that their faces lookt much like a piece of rumbled Parchment, and
by their continual traffick with Seamens Breeches, I could not come
near them, they smelt so strongly of Tarpawlin and stinking Cod; yet
still no tidings of her I sought for.
Pennington Street and its four 'hills'
short streets (each now about 80m long) run down from The Highway to
Pennington Street and the northern boundary of the London Docks - from
west to east, Breezer's Hill, Artichoke (previously spelt Artichoak)
Hill, St John's Hill and Chigwell Hill.
(1) Breezer's Hill is a 'Ripper site', as Mary Kelly was
believed to have lived here briefly in 1885. There had been a pub at
each end – the White Bear at the top (1 St George's Street), where Mary
no doubt drank, and the Red Lion at the bottom, which had closed in
(2) Artichoke Hill and (3) St John's Hill
once enclosed a square of small houses which gave onto a central piece
of ground. Artichoke Lane
was further to the south-west, at the bottom of Virginia Street, near
the Hermitage; there was a major fire there in 1792 (before the Docks
were built). - there was a major
fire on Artichoke Hill. Among the various surviving documentsis this touching appeal for a charity school place:
Cockshead I Beg Pardon for givin you this Trouble but hope your good
Hart will Exscuse me when I inform you I am a Sufferer by the Late Fire
in Hartychoke Laine No 30. We moved all our goods and in Moving Broke
and Lost Sevrell Yousfull Artickls tho to no Greet Amount but have no
Inchourance. My Greatist Los and Trouble is by Sending my 5 Dr
Children in to Wapping at that Early Oure in the Morning ... and 2 of
them has Never Louked up Since. The Youngist But wone I am Afrade Will
never be Restored in health to me A Gane. I have only to Say Good Sir
if you Would Plase A Sist me with a Trifell it will be of the Greatist
Sarvice to a Distress'd Famley and most thank fully Receved By Sir Your
Humble svt Ann Blenkinsop.
29 St George's Street, scene of the first Ratcliff Highway murder in 1811, lay
between Artichoke Hill and St John's Hill [it is now the site of a car
showroom]. William Harrison Ainsworth's serially-published novel of
1839 Jack Sheppard (vol 2, p229) refers to a miserable quarter between Artichoke Lane and Nightingale Lane .... termed the New Mint. [Right is the corner of St John's Hill]
Some of the German sugar bakers settled here. It also housed small workshops; for example, in 1852 John Akrill of Artichoke Hill was granted a patent for 'improvements in the manufacture of bricks, tiles and other earthenware articles'. (A century later, an engineering firm manufacturing farm equipment was based here.) By the turn of the century, the area was filled with sailors' brothels, and was often visited by voyeurs from high society in search of a cheap thrill.
The Artichoke Tavern stood on the corner of Artichoke Hill, at 19 St George's Street [now 50 The Highway]; it was rebuilt in the mid-20th century and later renamed The Caxton [left]; in 2012 it became a Domino's pizza takeaway. For a time there were studios in the area - for example, the Dutch Jewish artist Albert Alter was based here. The flats on the corner [right] at the bottom of the hill are part of the 1989-90 development by Rick Mather, abutting Times House.
(4) Chigwell Hill boasts one of London's earliest street signs (on the corner of The Highway). Pictured,
looking north towards The Highway, is a painting from 1881 and a
photograph from 1950 which shows little change. At the top is the
now-closed Old Rose public house.
Footnote: The Highway in Roman Britain - and plans for the future
recently Babe Ruth's - an art deco American restaurant with a
sports theme, once visited by Tony Blair [far left] - stood at 172-176 The
Highway, on the corner of Wapping Lane. This was demolished in 2002,
and prior to the building of the Eluna apartment block [left] pre-construct archaeology
was carried out, which later continued on the vacant lot
across the road, north of Tobacco Dock (with some photographs taken
from the church tower). This has uncovered evidence of a bath-house and
associated buildings dating from some time between the 2nd and 4th
centuries, which was written up in 2011 (Pre-Construct Archaeology, monograph no.12) [right]. The finds are now covered over, and planning permission for a hotel on this site was recently given.
for an account by Sir Robert Cotton of the discovery, in 1614 or 1615,
in Ratcliff Field of a monument to a Roman Proprætor's wife, which he
dated to 239 AD.
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